Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2013| July-September  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 15, 2013

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Ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis, leiomyoma, or combined with histopathological correlation
Magdi Hanafi
July-September 2013, 6(3):189-193
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121421  PMID:24347933
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis of adenomyosis, leiomyoma, or combined adenomyosis and leiomyoma by the use of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) compared to the histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with a preoperative TVS diagnosis of adenomyosis, leiomyoma, or combined. Patients diagnosed with adenomyosis or combined adenomyosis and leiomyoma via TVS underwent hysterectomy. Symptomatic patients diagnosed with adenomyosis and leiomyoma via TVS underwent myomectomy with excision of the surrounding myometrium which contained possible adenomyosis. Following surgery, a histopathological examination was performed by the hospital pathologists. The microscopic diagnosis of the specimen was recorded. Results: TVS diagnosis of adenomyosis was sensitive but not specific. TVS was sensitive, specific, and accurate in the diagnosis of leiomyoma and combined adenomyosis and leiomyoma. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that TVS is a valuable noninvasive method that should be utilized in the diagnosis of leiomyoma and combined adenomyosis and leiomyoma. TVS is sensitive, but is not specific in the diagnosis of adenomyosis only.
  2 4,065 267
Abha Majumdar, Nisha Sharma Mangal
July-September 2013, 6(3):168-175
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121400  PMID:24347930
Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone which has its principle physiological action in initiation and maintenance of lactation. In human reproduction, pathological hyperprolactinemia most commonly presents as an ovulatory disorder and is often associated with secondary amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea. Galactorrhea, a typical symptom of hyperprolactinemia, occurs in less than half the cases. Out of the causes of hyperprolactinemia, pituitary tumors may be responsible for almost 50% of cases and need to be investigated especially in the absence of history of drug induced hyperprolactinemia. In women with hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea one important consequence of estrogen deficiency is osteoporosis, which deserves specific therapeutic consideration. Problem in diagnosing and treating hyperprolactinemia is the occurrence of the 'big big molecule of prolactin' that is biologically inactive (called macroprolactinemia), but detected by the same radioimmunoassay as the biologically active prolactin. This may explain many cases of very high prolactin levels sometimes found in normally ovulating women and do not require any treatment. Dopamine agonist is the mainstay of treatment. However, presence of a pituitary macroadenoma may require surgical or radiological management.
  1 13,092 1,058
A clinical appraisal of the genetic basis in unexplained male infertility
Sandro C Esteves
July-September 2013, 6(3):176-182
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121419  PMID:24347931
Unexplained male infertility (UMI), the inability to reproduce despite having a normal sexual history, physical exam and semen analysis, can have a genetic origin. Currently, few diagnostic tools are available for detecting such genetic abnormalities. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are respectively used for chromosomal alterations in somatic cells and sperm aneuploidy assessment. Gene sequencing and mutational analysis have been introduced for identifying specific mutations and polymorphisms. Other approaches to the molecular evaluation of spermatozoa are under investigation, including array comparative genomic hybridization and whole-genome sequencing and non-coding ribonucleic acid arrays. Although treating cytogenetic abnormalities and genetic aberrations is still out of reach, the integration of these novel techniques may unravel hidden genetic defects in UMI. Finally, a deeper understanding of the sperm epigenome might allow the development of therapies based on epigenome modifications. This review focuses on the genetic basis of UMI and highlights the current and future methods for the evaluation of genetic defects as they relate to UMI. Review of the literature was carried out using ScienceDirect, OVID, PubMed and MedLine search engines.
  1 3,617 256
From the Editor's desk
Madhuri Patil
July-September 2013, 6(3):167-167
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121398  PMID:24347929
  - 2,013 91
Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer
Natachandra M Chimote, Nishad N Chimote, Nirmalendu M Nath, Bindu N Mehta
July-September 2013, 6(3):183-188
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121420  PMID:24347932
Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET) has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT) is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT). Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098), top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436), IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408), pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173), and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003) compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441) in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.
  - 5,986 145
Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic comparisons of the four Rotterdam PCOS phenotypes: A prospective study of PCOS women
Sujata Kar
July-September 2013, 6(3):194-200
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121422  PMID:24347934
Aims: 1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome in these women. Settings and Design: Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Materials and Methods: Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1) PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O) + polycystic ovaries (P) + hyperandrogenism (H) 2) P + O, 3) P + H, and 4) O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), modified Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III 2005 guidelines) and IR (homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR)). Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18. Results: Largest group was PCOS complete (65.6%) followed by P + O (22.2%); H + O (11.2%); and P + H (0.9%). Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.07%. Hyperandrogenic phenotyptes; H + O (50%) and P + H + O (37.04%), had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than normoandrogenic P + O phenotype (10%) (P ≤ 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 (P = 0.0004; odds ratio (OR) = 3.07 (1.6574-5.7108, 95% CI)), waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm (P = 0.001; OR = 3.68 (1.6807-8.0737, 95% CI)) and family history of diabetes (P = 0.019; OR 1.82 (1.1008-3.0194, 95% CI)), were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of IR in PCOS women was 30.44% (HOMA-IR cutoff ≥ 3.8) and 34.94% (HOMA-IR cutoff ≥ 3.5). Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and IR was 35.07 and 30.44%, respectively. The hyperandrogenic phenotypes have significantly higher metabolic morbidity compared to normoandrgenic phenotype. BMI > 25, WC ≥ 80 cm, and family history of diabetes carry the highest risk for developing metabolic syndrome.
  - 4,258 287
Impact of socio-economic status on ovarian reserve markers
Tadisetti Surekha, Yalamanchali Himabindu, Manne Sriharibabu
July-September 2013, 6(3):201-204
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121423  PMID:24347935
Background: Fertility rates have started declining in India in the last few decades. The total fertility rate, which was 3.5 in 93-94 declined to 2.5 in 2005-6. Researchers attribute this fertility transition to concomitant socio-economic development. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important contributor for age related infertility. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the association of ovarian reserve with socio-economic status (SES) with the available clinical ovarian reserve markers in reproductive age women. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 married women in the age group of 20-35 years, belonging to all three socio-economic strata were assessed for ovarian reserve using the clinical ovarian reserve parameters Antimullerian hormone (AMH), Antral follicle count (AFC) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Analysis of variance was used to see the association of ovarian reserve with SES. Results: Both the ovarian parameters AMH and AFC have shown a significant association with SES (P = 0.000 for AMH and P = 0.023 for AFC). The association between FSH and SES was not significant (P = 0.147). Conclusions: Higher SES in this study was seen to be associated with better ovarian reserve as assessed by the available clinical ovarian reserve markers.
  - 2,284 107
Comparative multiplex analysis of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in follicular fluid of normoresponder women undergoing ovum donation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols
Neena Malhotra, Akhilesh Srivastava, Harpal Rana, Anupama Bahadur, Jayasree Sengupta, Debabrata Ghosh
July-September 2013, 6(3):205-212
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121424  PMID:24347936
Background: Conflicting results were yielded about the superiority of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocols used in ovarian stimulation in in vitro fertilization (IVF) set-up. Reports also indicate that any single specific individual marker in follicular fluid collected at the time of oocyte retrieval bears inconclusive value as a predictor of oocyte quality. Aims: Simultaneous analyses of large numbers of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in ovarian follicular fluid and perifollicular vascularity in both protocols for ovarian stimulation in IVF program to address the above mentioned lacunae. Settings and Designs: Normoresponder women (n = 45) were subjected to either GnRH-a (Group 1; n = 23) or GnRH-ant (Group 2; n = 22) for ovarian stimulation in IVF clinics. Materials and Methods: The fluid samples of dominant follicles collected at oocyte retrieval from women in Group 1 (GnRH-a; n = 20) and Group 2 (GnRH-ant; n = 16) were used for simultaneous quantitative assays of 48 cytokines. Perifollicular vascularity was assessed by Doppler hemodynamics to assess the ovarian vascular response in all participants in Groups 1 and 2. Results: Despite demographic and reproductive parameters studied remained comparable, higher follicular fluid concentration of interleukins, IL-3 (P < 0.01), IL12p70 (P < 0.05) and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.01), P4 (P < 0.05) and pulsatility index (P < 0.04) along with a lower number of oocytes in metaphase II stage (P < 0.03) was observed in Group 2 compared with Group 1. GnRH-a protocol appeared to be superior to GnRH-ant protocol for ovarian stimulation in normoresponder women.
  - 2,792 119
Role of early serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in predicting multiple pregnancy and pregnancy wastage in an in vitro ET fertilization cycle
Neeta Singh, Anjuman Ara Begum, Neena Malhotra, Anupama Bahadur, P Vanamail
July-September 2013, 6(3):213-218
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.121425  PMID:24347937
Objective: This study was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), measured on day 14 post embryo transfer (ET) for predicting multiple gestation and pregnancy wastage in women undergoing in vitro fertilization ET (IVF-ET). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed between May 2009 and November 2012. Out of the 181 women who conceived, 168 were included and the remaining 13 were excluded as their pregnancy was biochemical. Serum βhCG was measured using a chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay. The predictive values of serum βhCG for establishing multiple pregnancy and pregnancy wastages were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Median values of serum βhCG and outcome of all pregnancies were compared. Results: Out of the 168 patients who conceived after IVF treatment, 114 (68%) were viable pregnancies (delivered/ongoing). Among the viable pregnancies, 97 (85%) had a successful pregnancy outcome and the remaining 17 patients are ongoing pregnancies. Median values of βhCG (625 IU/L) among viable pregnancies was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of nonviable pregnancies (174 IU/L). The median values of βhCG for singleton (502 IU/L), twins (1093 IU/L), and triplets (2160 IU/L) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using ROC curve it was predicted that for a value of βhCG at 375 IU/L, the sensitivity of viable pregnancy was 65% and specificity of viable pregnancy was also 65%, with positive and negative predictive values of 65 and 68%, respectively. Similarly for multiple pregnancy and pregnancy wastage the predictive values of βhCG were 808 and 375 IU/L, respectively; while the sensitivity and specificity is more than 65% each. Conclusion: βhCG cutoff values determined on day 14 post ET by ROC curve analysis are useful in discriminating between multiple pregnancy and pregnancy losses. The cutoff value might aid in the prognosis, clinical management, and counseling of the IVF patients.
  - 5,972 126
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