Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2012| January-April  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 2, 2012

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Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research studies
KP Suresh, S Chandrashekara
January-April 2012, 5(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97779  PMID:22870008
Determining the optimal sample size for a study assures an adequate power to detect statistical significance. Hence, it is a critical step in the design of a planned research protocol. Using too many participants in a study is expensive and exposes more number of subjects to procedure. Similarly, if study is underpowered, it will be statistically inconclusive and may make the whole protocol a failure. This paper covers the essentials in calculating power and sample size for a variety of applied study designs. Sample size computation for single group mean, survey type of studies, 2 group studies based on means and proportions or rates, correlation studies and for case-control for assessing the categorical outcome are presented in detail.
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Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats
Maryam Jalali, Ghasem Saki, Ali Reza Sarkaki, Khodabakhsh Karami, Sima Nasri
January-April 2012, 5(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97801  PMID:22870015
Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05). There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.
  6 5,352 220
Understanding implantation window, a crucial phenomenon
Alok Sharma, Pratap Kumar
January-April 2012, 5(1):2-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97777  PMID:22870007
Embryo implantation is a well-defined and precise process, in which various factors come into play one after the other. There is only a specific period of time during which implantation is possible i.e. "implantation window". Selectins were proposed to have an important role in this phase to ensure suitable rolling of the blastocyst. To prevent the blastocyst from adhering to an area with poor chances of implantation, an important role is played by the repellent activity of MUC-1, which is widely expressed throughout the endometrium and, surprisingly, even increases before implantation. In particular endometrial areas, secretion of chemokines and growth factors will attract the blastocyst to landing platforms known as pinopods. These pinopods are fully developed for only 1 or 2 days and extend over the tips of the microvilli expressing the repellent MUC-1. At this stage, adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins intervene to ensure adhesiveness between the embryo and the endometrium.
  6 4,895 362
OHVIRA: Uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: Advantage MRI
Sunil K Bajaj, Ritu Misra, Brij B Thukral, Rohini Gupta
January-April 2012, 5(1):67-70
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97811  PMID:22870020
We present here a case of an uncommon complex uterine anomaly - Obstructed HemiVagina with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis (OHVIRA), also known as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 14-year-old girl along with sonographic (trans-abdominal and trans labial), and MRI findings. The patient underwent surgery wherein imaging findings were confirmed. An MRI has proved to be of great help in correct diagnosis avoiding surgical interventions/ laparoscopy, which were needed in past to diagnose this rare anomaly. We also discuss the development of this anomaly with the help of a relatively new theory of uro-genital development by Acien and review the literature.
  5 11,577 273
Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa
Serah F Ige, Samuel B Olaleye, Roland E Akhigbe, Titilayo A Akanbi, Olanrewaju A Oyekunle, Utibe-Abasi S Udoh
January-April 2012, 5(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97798  PMID:22870013
Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6). Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 ) intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE) for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.
  5 5,656 274
Successful management of heterotopic pregnancy after fetal reduction using potassium chloride and methotrexate
Deepika Deka, Anupama Bahadur, Aprajita Singh, Neena Malhotra
January-April 2012, 5(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97807  PMID:22870017
Heterotopic pregnancy, the presence of two gestational sacs simultaneously, is a rare event but with the advent of Assisted Reproductive Technology, it is now an increasingly common complication. The reported incidence of a heterotopic pregnancy in a spontaneous cycle is quoted as 1 in 30,000. We report the case of a 38-year-old primigravida who was referred to our center at 11 + 2 weeks gestation with a diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy for further management. A non-surgical intervention comprising of transvaginal ultrasound-guided potassium chloride and methotrexate into the cervical pregnancy resulted in a successful outcome. As an obstetrician, a high index of clinical suspicion and an early scan is mandatory to make a diagnosis of a heterotopic pregnancy and manage accordingly.
  4 4,371 150
Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats
Ayodeji F Ajayi, Roland E Akhigbe
January-April 2012, 5(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97799  PMID:22870014
Background: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. Materials and Methods: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.
  4 4,087 160
A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy of Letrozole and Clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome
Kallol Kumar Roy, Jinee Baruah, Shilpa Singla, Jai Bhagwan Sharma, Neeta Singh, Sunesh Kumar Jain, Manu Goyal
January-April 2012, 5(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97789  PMID:22870010
Objectives: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC) in patients of anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 204 patients of PCOS. 98 patients (294 cycles) received 2.5-5 mg of letrozole; 106 patients (318 cycles) received 50-100 mg of CC (both orally from Days 3-7 of menstrual cycle). The treatment continued for three cycles in both the groups. Main outcome measures: ovulation rate, endometrial thickness, and pregnancy rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13 software. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean number of dominant follicles in letrozole groups and CC groups was 1.86±0.26 and 1.92±0.17, respectively (P=0.126). Number of ovulatory cycle in letrozole group was 196 (66.6%) versus 216 (67.9%) in CC group (P=0.712). The mean mid-cycle endometrial thickness was 9.1±0.3 mm in letrozole group and 6.3±1.1 in CC group, which was statistically significant (P=0.014). The mean Estradiol [E2] level in clomiphene citrate group was significantly higher in CC group (364.2±71.4 pg/mL) than letrozole group (248.2± 42.2 pg/mL). 43 patients from the letrozole group (43.8%) and 28 patients from the CC group (26.4%) became pregnant. Conclusion: Letrozole and CC have comparable ovulation rate. The effect of letrozole showed a better endometrial response and pregnancy rate compared with CC.
  4 6,676 277
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome attending an infertility clinic in a tertiary care hospital in south India
Kavita Mandrelle, Mohan S Kamath, Dian J Bondu, Achamma Chandy, TK Aleyamma, Korula George
January-April 2012, 5(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97791  PMID:22870011
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Setting: Infertility clinic in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All the women attending the infertility clinic categorized as polycystic ovary syndrome according to Rotterdam criteria (2003) during the study period were included in the study. The women with PCOS underwent screening for metabolic syndrome as defined by the modified American Heart Association/National Heart Lung Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) modified ATP 111 (2005) definition. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and significant predictors identified for the prediction of metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the modified AHA/NHLBI ATP III (2005) criteria was 37.5%. A total of 5.8 % cases were detected to have diabetes mellitus, 8.3% had impaired fasting glucose, and 11.7 % had an impaired glucose test. Dyslipidemia was present in 93.3% cases of PCOS. Among all the risk factors, age and waist hip ratio ≥0.85 were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Infertile women with PCOS, particularly those with age ≥25 years or with central obesity (a waist hip ratio of ≥0.85), are at a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and should be offered screening tests.
  4 4,968 338
Prediction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in coasted patients in an IVF/ICSI program
Fatimah Y Aljawoan, Linda P Hunt, Uma D Gordon
January-April 2012, 5(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97795  PMID:22870012
Aim: To determine why a subgroup of coasted patients developed moderate/severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in an assisted reproduction setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 2948 in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment cycles with 327 patients requiring coasting. Long protocol gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) regimen was used and serum estradiol (E 2 ) checked when ≥20 follicles were noted on follicular tracking. Coasting was initiated when leading three follicles were ≥15mm with E 2 ≥1635pg/ml. Results: The incidence of moderate/severe OHSS was 10.4% in coasted patients (equivalent 1.15% of the total IVF/ICSI cycles in the Center). Coasted patients who subsequently developed OHSS showed a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes, higher serum E 2 level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration, and multiple pregnancies. No significant differences were noted with female age, BMI, cause of infertility, gonadotrophin dosage, coasting duration, and % of E 2 drop. Conclusion: Moderate/severe OHSS might be predicted in coasted patients by a combination of total oocyte numbers and E 2 level on the day of hCG. Multiple pregnancies also significantly increased the risk.
  2 3,239 158
Clinical outcome of one-third-dose depot triptorelin is the same as half-dose depot triptorelin in the long protocol of controlled ovarian stimulation
Yu Li, Dongzi Yang, Qingxue Zhang
January-April 2012, 5(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97785  PMID:22870009
Objective: Appropriate dosage of the long-acting depot gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist has not been determined in long protocol for IVF, and one-third-dose depot triptorelin was compared with half-dose in a luteal long protocol of in-vitro fertilization/ intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment in this study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, open clinical trial. 100 patients were randomized into two groups. Group I received one-third-dose (1.25 mg) depot triptorelin. Group II received half-dose (1.87 mg). The clinical and experimental parameters were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in both groups. On Day 3-5 of menstrual cycle after down-regulation, fewer patients showed low-level LH (<1.0 IU/L) and estradiol (<30 pg/mL) in group I (P <0.05). There were fewer oocytes retrieved (P =0.086), fewer total embryos and available embryos for cryopreservation in Group I (P <0.05), while good-quality embryo rate was higher in group I (P <0.05). The length and dose of ovarian stimulation was lower in Group I, but not significantly. The clinical pregnancy (52% versus 40%), implantation (48% versus 37.5%), delivery (46% versus 32%), or live birth (42% versus 32%) rates and the abortion (8% versus 20%) rates showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Depot triptorelin 1.25 mg can be successfully used with reduced pituitary suppression and lower cost in a long protocol for in-vitro fertilization.
  2 3,561 150
MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with hyperlipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Madhu Jain, Priyanka Pandey, Narendra K Tiwary, Shuchi Jain
January-April 2012, 5(1):52-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97802  PMID:22870016
Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are prone for coronary artery disease (CAD), and hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD. MTHFR deficiency is the most common cause of hyperhomocysteinemia, thereby provoking a possible association between PCOS and MTHFR C677T polymorphism. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate an association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with PCOS. Settings and Design: 92 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) and 95 age-matched controls were compared with respect to MTHFR C677T polymorphism. The 2 genotypes (CC and CT) obtained were compared with clinical and laboratory parameters in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, clinical, biochemical, hormonal and genetic analysis (PCR-RFLP of peripheral leucocytes) was carried out on all women with PCOS as well as controls. Statistical Analysis: Student "t" test for quantitative and Chi-square test for nominal variables was used. For estimation of risk, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results: The odds ratio of bearing a heterozygous genotype (CT) was 1.32 in women with PCOS as compared to controls (P = 0.48). No homozygous mutation (TT) was found in the study population. Serum cholesterol was more in heterozygous (CT) genotype (215.48 ± 25.56 mg/dl) as compared to normal (CC) genotype (203.29 ± 16.35 mg/dl) in women with PCOS ( P = 0.01). Similarly, serum triglyceride was more in heterozygous (CT) genotype (95.86 ± 37.34 mg/dl) as compared to normal (CC) genotype (82.36 ± 20.88 mg/dl) in women with PCOS ( P = 0.04). Conclusions: Although not statistically significant, there is a slightly higher prevalence of heterozygous (CT) genotype in women with PCOS. MTHFR C677T polymorphism when present may confer an increased susceptibility to develop hyperlipidemia in women with PCOS. More prospective studies are needed to confirm whether this hyperlipidemia due to MTHFR C677T polymorphism clinically manifests into CAD in long term in women with PCOS.
  2 3,643 156
A rare case of unruptured viable secondary ovarian pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treated by conservative laparoscopic surgery
Bharti Dhorepatil, Aarti Rapol
January-April 2012, 5(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97808  PMID:22870018
Although the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is on the rise, ovarian pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer is a rare entity. Here, we report a case of unruptured ovarian pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which was treated by conservative laparoscopic surgery.
  - 5,191 97
"Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female
Udasimath Shivakumarswamy, R Purushotham, HK Kumar Naik, KR Nagesha
January-April 2012, 5(1):64-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97810  PMID:22870019
The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization) syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.
  - 14,430 124
From the Editor's desk
Kamini Rao
January-April 2012, 5(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97775  PMID:22870006
  - 2,255 148
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