Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2011| May-August  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 15, 2011

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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Pratap Kumar, Sameer Farouk Sait, Alok Sharma, Mukesh Kumar
May-August 2011, 4(2):70-75
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86080  PMID:22065820
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication of assisted reproduction technology. The syndrome is characterized by cystic enlargement of the ovaries and a fluid shift from the intravascular to the third space due to increased capillary permeability and ovarian neoangiogenesis. Its occurrence is dependent on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). β-hCG and its analogs, estrogen, estradiol, prolactin, histamine and prostaglandins have all been implicated in OHSS but now it is increasingly better understood that the vasoactivesubstances such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α, endothelin-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by the ovaries have been implicated in increasing vascular permeability. Enlargement of the ovaries causes abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Leakage of fluid from follicles, increased capillary permeability leading to third spacing (due to the release of vasoactive substances), or frank rupture of follicles can all cause ascites. Due to leakage of fluid through the impaired blood vessels both within and outside the ovary there is massive fluid-shift from the intra-vescular bed to the third compartment results in intravascular hypovolemia with concomitant development of edema, ascites, hydrothorax and/or hydropericardium. Low-dose gonadotrophin protocols have been implemented to reduce the risks of fertility treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Prophylactic albumin administration may interrupt the development of OHSS by increasing the plasma oncotic pressure and binding mediators of ovarian origin. OHSS is significantly lower in an antagonist protocol than in an agonist protocol. Cabergoline inhibits partially the VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation levels and associated vascular permeability without affecting luteal angiogenesis reduces the 'early' (within the first 9 days after hCG) onset of OHSS. To prevent thrombosis, subcutaneous heparin 5000-7500 U/d is begun on the first day of admission. These patients need a hospital ward where the clinical picture is well understood and the personnel have expertise in its treatment and follow-up. Admission to an intensive care unit is necessary when critical OHSS develops.
  14 10,034 556
Investigating the association between polymorphism of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene and ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Maryam Eftekhar, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar
May-August 2011, 4(2):86-90
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86089  PMID:22064672
Aim : The aim of the study was to investigate the association between follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism at Position 680 and the outcomes of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in infertile women. Materials and Methods : One hundred and eight patients under 35 years of age who underwent IVF-ET procedures were included in this study. The hormonal profile and treatment of all patients were analyzed and FSHR polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Women from all groups were classified based on polymorphisms at Position 680, occupied either by asparagines (Asn) or serine (Ser) as Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser genotype. Result : Our study showed that all patients in the Asn/Asn group were normal responders and in the Asn/Ser group 64.8% were normal responders and 21.1% and 14.1% were poor and hyper responders respectively. In the Ser/Ser group we did not have normal responders and 46.7% of these patients were poor responders and 53.3% were hyper responders. Conclusion : FSH receptor polymorphism is correlated with response to ovarian stimulation.
  9 4,359 233
Recurrent pregnancy loss: TNF-α and IL-10 polymorphisms
Amrit Kaur, Anupam Kaur
May-August 2011, 4(2):91-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86090  PMID:22064760
Background : The recurrent pregnancy loss requires careful consideration of genetic, anatomic, endocrine, infectious and immunological factors. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in the promoter regions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. AIM: The aim of present study was to investigate the association of the IL-10 -592C/A and TNF-α-308 G/A, promoter polymorphisms among women with at least three consecutive miscarriages. Materials and Methods : Genotyping was done in 50 women with RPL for IL-10-592C/A and TNF-α-308G/A promoter polymorphism to see the association of these loci with pregnancy loss. The control group included 50 healthy women having two or more children (mean age of the female subjects 35 years) for statistical comparisons. Results : IL- 10-592C/A and TNF-α-308G/A promoter polymorphisms were not associated with the recurrent miscarriages. Conclusions : There is a need to screen a larger sample and in different ethnic groups using IL-10-592C/A and TNF-α-308G/A markers to understand their association with recurrent miscarriages. This would further help in efficient management of immunologically mediated recurrent miscarriages at the sample/individual level.
  7 3,893 209
An evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital, sexual satisfaction indices and health-related quality of life in women
Sameer Valsangkar, Trupti Bodhare, Samir Bele, Surendranath Sai
May-August 2011, 4(2):80-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86088  PMID:22065832
Background : The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL) and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. Aims and Objectives : To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. Design and Setting : Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. Materials and Methods : Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale), sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire) in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol) in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. Results : Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively) for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R 2 0.725, Cohen's D 0.86) and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R 2 0.73, Cohen's D 0.815). QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. Conclusions : Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility.
  5 6,930 366
Tamoxifen: An alternative to clomiphene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Lakhbir Kaur Dhaliwal, Vanita Suri, Kamla Rani Gupta, Sumitu Sahdev
May-August 2011, 4(2):76-79
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86085  PMID:22058644
Background : Clomiphene citrate is commonly used for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory infertility. However, pregnancy rates with this drug are not as good as ovulation rates. Tamoxifen may be a better choice in some patients who fail to either ovulate or conceive with clomiphene due to its favorable effect on the cervical mucus and endometrium. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of tamoxifen in women with anovulatory infertility and find out the optimum dose needed for achieving the best outcome. Materials and Methods : 160 women attending the infertility clinic and suffering from anovulatory infertility were recruited for the study. Tamoxifen was administered in the dose of 40 mg daily and ovulation monitored. In case of anovulation, the dose was increased to 80 mg daily. Ovulation and pregnancy rates were calculated. Results : Twenty-three out of 160 women who received 40 mg of tamoxifen conceived, giving a pregnancy rate of 14.38% and pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle as 14.94%. 32 out of 80 women who received 80 mg of tamoxifen conceived, giving a pregnancy rate of 40% and pregnancy rate per cycle as 33.68%. This difference in the pregnancy rate between the two groups was statistically significant. 35 women out of 90 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) became pregnant with a pregnancy rate of 38.8% and 20 out of 70 women with clomiphene citrate failure conceived, giving a pregnancy rate of 28.5%. Conclusions : Tamoxifen is a good alternative to clomiphene in women with PCOS and clomiphene-resistant cases.
  2 5,664 258
Hyperprolactinemia: An often missed cause of male infertility
Pratibha Singh, Manish Singh, Goutham Cugati, Ajai Kumar Singh
May-August 2011, 4(2):102-103
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86094  PMID:22065670
  1 3,939 241
Nuclear detonation and infertility: Evidence
Viroj Wiwanitkit
May-August 2011, 4(2):103-104
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86095  PMID:22065709
  1 1,703 85
Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination
Sujata Kar
May-August 2011, 4(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86091  PMID:22064787
Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge). Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.
  - 5,977 129
From the Editor's Desk
Kamini Rao
May-August 2011, 4(2):69-69
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86078  PMID:22058643
  - 2,416 103
Bromocriptine or cabergoline-induced cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: A life-threatening complication during management of prolactinoma
Pratibha Singh, Manish Singh, Goutham Cugati, Ajai Kumar Singh
May-August 2011, 4(2):104-105
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86096  PMID:22065735
  - 4,143 117
Effect of epilepsy on female fertility and reproductive abnormalities
Pratibha Singh, Manish Singh, Goutham Cugati, Ajai Kumar Singh
May-August 2011, 4(2):100-101
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86092  PMID:22058645
  - 2,490 130
Finasteride and male fertility
Dilip Gude
May-August 2011, 4(2):101-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86093  PMID:22058646
  - 3,347 180
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