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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 191-196

Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Physiology, Rural Institute of Medical Sciences, Safai, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission09-May-2015
Date of Decision10-Jul-2015
Date of Acceptance13-Aug-2015
Date of Web Publication25-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Naina Kumar
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Wardha - 442 102, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.170370

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Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8-12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40-50% is due to "male factor" infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility.

Keywords: Infertility, semen, sperm

How to cite this article:
Kumar N, Singh AK. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature. J Hum Reprod Sci 2015;8:191-6

How to cite this URL:
Kumar N, Singh AK. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2023 Mar 29];8:191-6. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Infertility is a condition with psychological, economic, medical implications resulting in trauma, stress, particularly in a social set-up like ours, with a strong emphasis on child-bearing. According to the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology, World Health Organization (WHO), infertility is a disease of reproductive system defined by failure to achieve the clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. [1] It can also be defined as failure of couple to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse without the use of contraception in women <35 years; and after 6 months of regular intercourse without the use of contraception in women ≥35 years. [2]

   Global incidence of infertility Top

There are no reliable figures for global prevalence of infertility, [3] but estimates suggest that nearly 72.4 million couples globally experience fertility problems. [4] As per the WHO estimates 60-80 million couples worldwide currently suffer from infertility. [5] It varies across regions of the world and is estimated to affect 8-12% of couples worldwide. [6],[7] It tends to be the highest in countries with high fertility rates; an occurrence termed "barrenness amid plenty." [8] In recent decades, infertility has impacted an increasing number of couples. Approximately, 10% of couples in the United States are defined as infertile based on the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse. [9],[10] According to National Center for Health Statistics, the absolute numbers of impaired fecundity increased by about 2.7 million women, from 4.56 million in 1982 to 7.26 million in 2002, then fell slightly to 6.71 million in 2006-2010. [11] Moreover, the fertility rate in men younger than age 30 years has also decreased worldwide by 15%. [12]

   Infertility in india Top

As per the WHO, the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranges between 3.9% and 16.8%. [5] Also, the estimates of infertility vary widely among Indian states from 3.7% in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and Maharashtra, [13] to 5% in Andhra Pradesh, [14] and 15% in Kashmir. [15] Moreover, the prevalence of primary infertility has also been shown to vary across the tribes and castes within the same region in India. [13],[16]

It was reported that 40% of infertility cases were related to men, 40% of women and 20% of both sexes. [17] According to a multicentric study conducted by WHO from 1982 to 1985, 20% of cases were attributed to male factors, 38% to female factors, 27% had causal factors identified in both partners, and 15% could not be satisfactorily attributed to either partner. [18] In Indian couples seeking treatment, the male factor is the cause in approximately 23%. [15] A recent report on the status of infertility in India, states that nearly 50% of infertility is related to the reproductive anomalies or disorders in the male. [19] In addition, over 25% of infertility cases, no detectable cause can be traced after routine tests, which leaves the case as unexplained infertility. [19]

   Male Infertility: An Important Factor Top

Male infertility refers to a male's inability to result pregnancy in a fertile female. "Male factor" infertility is seen as an alteration in sperm concentration and/or motility and/or morphology in at least one sample of two sperm analyzes, collected 1 and 4 weeks apart. [20] In humans, it accounts for 40-50% of infertility [21],[22],[23] and affects approximately 7% of all men. [24] Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity. [25]

Males with sperm parameters below the WHO normal values are considered to have male factor infertility. [26] The most significant of these are low sperm concentration (oligospermia), poor sperm motility (asthenospermia), and abnormal sperm morphology (teratospermia). Other factors less well associated with infertility include semen volume and other seminal markers of epididymal, prostatic, and seminal vesicle function. [27] As high as 90% of male infertility problems are related to count and there is a positive association between the abnormal semen parameters and sperm count. [28] The problem with sperm count, motility, and morphology stems from disarray in control mechanism, including pre-testicular, testicular, and post-testicular factors. [29]

Hence, semen analysis remains the single most useful and fundamental investigation with a sensitivity of 89.6%, that it is able to detect 9 out of 10 men with a genuine problem of male infertility. [30] It is a simple test that assesses the formation and maturity of sperm as well as how the sperm interacts in the seminal fluid. It also provides insight not only on sperm production (count), but the sperm quality (motility, morphology) as well. [31]

   Normal seminal parameters Top

Semen analysis is an imperfect tool but remains the cornerstone to investigate male infertility. [32] It must be performed to a consistently high standard in order to evaluate the descriptive parameters of the ejaculate. [20],[33] Although this assay reveals a useful information for the initial evaluation of the infertile male, it is not a test of fertility. [34] It provides no insights into the functional potential of the spermatozoon to undergo subsequent maturation processes required to achieve fertilization. It is important that while the results may correlate with "fertility," the assay is not a direct measure of fertility. [35],[36],[37]

The WHO has revised lower reference limits for semen analyses: The following parameters represent the accepted 5 th percentile (lower reference limits and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] in parentheses), derived from a study of over 1900 men whose partners had a time-to-pregnancy of ≤12 months. [25]

  • Volume: 1.5 mL (95% CI: 1.4-1.7)
  • Sperm concentration: 15 million spermatozoa/mL (95% CI: 12-16)
  • Total sperm number: 39 million spermatozoa per ejaculate (95% CI: 33-46)
  • Morphology: 4% normal forms (95% CI: 3-4), using "strict" Tygerberg method [33]
  • Vitality: 58% live (95% CI: 55-63)
  • Progressive motility: 32% (95% CI: 31-34)
  • Total (progressive + nonprogressive motility): 40% (95% CI: 38-42).

   Abnormalities of sperm count and morphology Top

Sperm abnormalities are a critical factor in male infertility. These abnormalities include:

Abnormalities related to sperm count

  • Azoospermia: Absence of sperm in seminal plasma
  • Low sperm count (oligozoospermia: <15 million sperms/mL). [25]

Abnormalities related to sperm motility

The efficient passage of spermatozoa through the cervical mucus depends on rapid progressive motility, [38],[39] that is, spermatozoa with a forward progression of at least 25 μm/s. A normal semen analysis must contain at least 50% grade A and B, progressively motile spermatozoa. Persistent poor motility is a predictor of failure in fertilization. [40]

Abnormal sperm structure and shape (teratozoospermia)

For morphology of sperms, smears can be scored using the WHO classification, or by Kruger's strict criteria classification. [41] Morphology should be used along with other parameters, and not as an isolated parameter when determining clinical implications. [42],[43]

   Male infertility on the rise? Top

Time and again, various studies have been published supporting a decline in sperm quality or dismissing the same. [44],[45],[46],[47],[48] Analysis of retrospective data indicates that sperm counts may have declined in some parts of the world, but there seems to be geographical variations in the semen quality. [49],[50],[51] The reason for geographic variations in semen characteristics is not clear, but it may be due to environmental, nutritional, socioeconomic, or other unknown causes. [52] The decline in the semen quality coincides with an increasing incidence of abnormalities of the male genital tract including testicular cancer and cryptorchidism in various countries. [53],[54]

   Global trends of male infertility Top

As early as in the 1980s, many scientists/clinicians reported an emerging concern about deteriorating semen quality. [55],[56],[57] To better elucidate this problem, a study was done in 1992, which included the meta-analysis of, which had 61 articles 14,947 men with no previous history of infertility. This study concluded that the mean sperm count of healthy men declined by 1% per year between 1938 and 1990. [44] Furthermore, they reported a statistically significant 50% reduction in the mean sperm count from 113 Χ 10 6 mL−1 in 1940 to 66 Χ 10 6 mL−1 in 1990 and in the seminal volume from 3.40 to 2.75 mL, using linear regression data weighted by the number of men in each study. [44] In 2000, an updated comprehensive meta-analysis was done, which also confirmed the falling trend in sperm count. [58] Also, an another meta-analysis reported that sperm density has decreased globally by about 50% over the past 50-60 years. [31],[44] A study in Finland found a temporal decrease in semen quality in the general population over a period of 1998 to 2006. [59] Another study between 1996 and 2007 in the Sfax area of Southern Tunisia in a sample of 2940 men in infertile relationships concluded the decline in semen quality over a period of 12 years. [60] A retrospective study of 9168 cases (men ages 20 to 77) obtained from Andrology and Reproduction Laboratory in Cordoba, Argentina for 10 years (1995-2004) showed a significant decrease in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, viability and normal morphology, and a reduction in alpha-glucosidase and fructose levels in relation to age. [61] Furthermore, a study at the Reproduction Biology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille (France) between 1988 and 2007, which included semen analysis of 10,932 male partners of infertile couples concluded that the whole population demonstrated the declining trends in sperm concentration (1.5%/year), total sperm count (1.6%/year), total motility (0.4%/year), rapid motility (5.5%/year), and normal morphology (2.2%/year). Also, in the group of selected samples with total normal sperm count, the same trends of sperm quality deterioration with time were observed. [62]

On contrary to this many studies have demonstrated no change in seminal parameters over the time. For example, a cross-sectional study of 4867 men from the general Danish population between 1996 and 2010 concluded that over 15 years, median sperm concentration increased from 43 to 48 million/ml and the total sperm count from 132 to 151 million. The median percentage of motile spermatozoa and abnormal spermatozoa were 68% and 93% and did not change during the study period. [63] Another similar study conducted between 2000 and 2010 among young Swedish men from the general population concluded that there is no evidence of time-related deterioration of semen parameters. [64]

   Trends of male infertility in india Top

Although, the baseline semen quality and sperm functional parameters in fertile Indian men have been documented, [65] the data on declining sperm count in Indian males is limited. According to a study conducted in South India over a period of 13 years, it was found that the decline in sperm count was 30.31% whereas, sperm motility and morphology was reduced by 22.92% and 51.25%, respectively. [66] More importantly, the increase in the incidence of sperm morphological abnormalities in addition to the low sperm count observed in this study indicates the qualitative impairment of spermatogenesis and perhaps of the  Sertoli cells More Details. [67]

Also, the Doctors from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences reported that over 12-18 million couples in India are diagnosed with infertility every year. [68] They have reported that while the sperm count of a normal Indian adult male used to be 60 million/ml three decades ago, it now stands at around 20 million/ml. [69] It was found that majority of men who were exposed to high temperature at their workplace - welders, dyers, blast furnace workers and those employed in cement and steel factories - were more prone to infertility. This is due to excess environmental heat which increases the temperature of the scrotum, causing a negative effect on sperm production. A 1΀ elevation in testicular temperature leads to 14% depression of spermatogenesis. [68] Not only has quantity of sperm production declined in males across the world, but there has also been a decrease in motility and morphology of the sperms. There has been a 2% decrease in quality of male sperm annually. [69] About 40% men in the reproductive age group are presently recording a quantitative and qualitative decline in sperm quality. [70] According to a 10-year comparison study on sperm quality and quantity (2000-2001 to 2010-2011), the percentage of semen ejaculation, which is considered less than normal (below 4 ml), increased from 34% to 65% and the most suitable ejaculation volume (more than 4 ml) went down from 15% to 3%. [69] As far as the morphology of sperm was concerned, in 2000-2001, 26% of the sperms showed above 60% normality, whereas in 2000-2011 this was reduced to 7%. [69] However, a similar study in Calcutta, which included semen analysis of 3729 men presenting with infertility problems in two distinct decades, that is, between 1981-1985 and 2000-2006 concluded a significant decline in the sperm motility parameters and seminal volume in the present decade, but no change in overall sperm concentration. A decline was seen in sperm motility with increasing age in both decades. [71]

The exact reason for the decline in semen quality is not clear, but it may be due to environmental, nutritional, socioeconomic or other unknown causes. [43],[44],[50],[72] Aging is an important factor responsible for the decline in semen quality, as first described in 1969 by Sasano and Ichijo, that the sperm concentration decreases as men age. They reported that 90% of seminiferous tubules in men in their 20s and 30s contained spermatids, whereas men in their 40s and 50s had spermatids in 50% of their seminiferous tubules. Only 10% of seminiferous tubules from men aged >80 years contained spermatids. [73] In contrast to concentration, evidence consistently indicates that sperm motility decreases with advancing age. [27] Various studies revealed statistically significant decreases in motility of 0.17-0.6% per year of age [44],[48] resulting in a 3-12% decline in motility over 20 years. Similar to motility, morphology appears to decrease with advancing male age. [27] Studies indicate a decline in normal sperm morphology of 0.2-0.9% per year of age, [27] resulting in a 4-18% decrease in normal morphology over a 20-year period. [45],[74]

Also, in utero exposures to exogenous estrogenic compounds are capable of altering neonatal testicular development and reducing sperm production in adult men. [67],[75] Diethylstilbestrol is thought to be responsible for an increase in abnormalities of the reproductive tract and for a reduction in the output and fertilizing potential of sperm of male offspring. [76]

   Conclusion Top

Hence, male infertility is an important cause of infertility with a strong impact on the psychology and physiology of couple. It can be due to several reasons. Also, the present literature reveals that its trend is increasing in India. Therefore, it's the need of the hour to look into the factors which are causing such a rise in male infertility and attempts should be made to control such factors in near future.

   Way forward Top

Male infertility is an alarming global health issue that has not been researched or studied to truly understand its magnitude and prevalence. There is still a great need for further research into underlying etiology and treatment of male infertility. In future, we can work together in this field to achieve certain goals like:

  • Attempts should be made to reduce the barriers from stigmas associated with infertility due to religious and cultural beliefs so that patients open up and share their problems
  • Create a globally accepted population-based calculation in order to understand the prevalence and magnitude of male infertility
  • To create awareness about male infertility in society.

The present study is only a review of various studies conducted all over the world. The exact rates of male infertility from developing countries like ours are difficult to find because of the problem with the definition of male infertility and lack of accurate reporting rather than a true reflection of male infertility. But still in future, we can conduct various research studies to find out the major causes of male infertility and can work in that direction to reduce such factors which can affect the future fertility of males.


I acknowledge and thank Dr. Namit Kant Singh for his advice and expertise.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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81 Availability of services for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in The Gambia`s public and private health facilities: a cross-sectional survey
Anna Afferri, Haddijatou Allen, Susan Dierickx, Mustapha Bittaye, Musa Marena, Allan Pacey, Julie Balen
BMC Health Services Research. 2022; 22(1)
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82 The environmental and occupational influence of pesticides on male fertility: A systematic review of human studies
Carlo Giulioni, Valentina Maurizi, Daniele Castellani, Simone Scarcella, Edlira Skrami, Giancarlo Balercia, Andrea Benedetto Galosi
Andrology. 2022;
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83 Intratesticular versus intraperitoneal injection of Busulfan for the induction of azoospermia in a rat model
Halimeh Mobarak, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Nouri, Mohammad Heidarpour, Mahdi Mahdipour
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2022; 23(1)
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84 Oocyte activation deficiency and assisted oocyte activation: mechanisms, obstacles and prospects for clinical application
Junaid Kashir, Durga Ganesh, Celine Jones, Kevin Coward
Human Reproduction Open. 2022; 2022(2)
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85 Trophectoderm non-coding RNAs reflect the higher metabolic and more invasive properties of young maternal age blastocysts
Panagiotis Ntostis, Grace Swanson, Georgia Kokkali, David Iles, John Huntriss, Agni Pantou, Maria Tzetis, Konstantinos Pantos, Helen M. Picton, Stephen A. Krawetz, David Miller
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine. 2022; : 1
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86 Potential of paracetamol for reproductive disruption: Molecular interaction, dynamics and MM-PBSA based In-silico assessment
Sayed Aliul Hasan Abdi, Abuzer Ali, Shabihul Fatma Sayed, Amena Ali, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan Abadi, Abu Tahir, Mohammad Amir Afzal, Hina Rashid, Omar M. Aly, Sumathi Nagarajan
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 2022; : 1
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87 Computational, biochemical and ex vivo evaluation of xanthine derivatives against phosphodiesterases to enhance the sperm motility
Mutyala Satish, Kumari Sandhya, Kulhar Nitin, Ninjoor Yashas Kiran, Babu Aleena, Adiga Satish Kumar, Kalthur Guruprasad, Eerappa Rajakumara
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2022; : 1
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88 Identification of potential key genes related to idiopathic male infertility using RNA-sequencing data: an in-silico approach
Laxman Kumar Lukkani, Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Mathavan Muthaiyan, Amouda Venkatesan
Human Fertility. 2022; : 1
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89 Effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters: a cross-sectional study of 1634 men in China
Shanshan Zhang, Fengyi Mo, Yali Chang, Shufang Wu, Qing Ma, Fan Jin, Lanfeng Xing, James Cummins
Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2022; 34(9): 669
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90 Tributyltin chloride exposure to post-ejaculatory sperm reduces motility, mitochondrial function and subsequent embryo development
Bradford W. Daigneault, João D. de Agostini Losano, Marc Yeste
Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2022; 34(12): 833
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91 Comparison of polymorphism 139C?>?A ( (rs737008) of protamine 1 gene in infertile men with diagnosis of oligospermia and asthenospermia
Mehdi Mohsenzadeh, Aliyar Pirouzi, Seyedeh Fereshteh Saadat, Mahmood Dehghani Ashkezari
Meta Gene. 2022; 31: 100978
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92 Tailored support may reduce mental and relational impact of infertility on infertile patients and partners
Jacky Boivin, Rita Vassena, Mauro Costa, Elena Vegni, Marjorie Dixon, Barbara Collura, Marie Markert, Carl Samuelsen, Jillian Guiglotto, Eva Roitmann, Alice Domar
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93 Protective role of Cytoglobin and Neuroglobin against the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in Leydig cells ex vivo
Derya Sagraç, Selinay Senkal, Taha Bartu Hayal, Selami Demirci, Hatice Burcu Sisli, Ayla Burçin Asutay, Aysegül Dogan
Reproductive Biology. 2022; 22(1): 100595
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94 Potential protective effect of beta-caryophyllene against cadmium chloride-induced damage to the male reproductive system in mouse
Beatriz A. Espinosa-Ahedo, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Manuel Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Jeannett A. Izquierdo-Vega, José A. Morales-González, Eduardo O. Madrigal-Santillán, Isela Álvarez-González
Reproductive Toxicology. 2022;
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95 Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs on hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in males: A review
Ozlem Atli Eklioglu, Sinem Ilgin
Toxicology. 2022; 465: 153043
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96 The developmental significance of sperm-borne ribonucleic acids and their potential for use as diagnostic markers for male factor infertility
Matthew Hamilton, Stewart Russell, Sergey Moskovtsev, Stephen A. Krawetz, Clifford Librach
F&S Reviews. 2022; 3(1): 11
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97 Asprosin modulates testicular functions during ageing in mice
Sangeeta Maurya, Ajit Singh
General and Comparative Endocrinology. 2022; 323-324: 114036
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98 Micro-TESE strategy in patients with NOA caused by AZFc deletion: synchronous or asynchronous?
Jiaming Mao, Chenyao Deng, Lianming Zhao, Defeng Liu, Haocheng Lin, Zhe Zhang, Yuzhuo Yang, Haitao Zhang, Rong Li, Kai Hong, Hui Jiang
Zygote. 2022; : 1
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99 Multi-dimensional-double-spiral (MDDS) inertial microfluidic platform for sperm isolation directly from the raw semen sample
Hyungkook Jeon, Claudia Cremers, Doris Le, Justin Abell, Jongyoon Han
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
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100 Osteopathie bei männlicher Infertilität
Michael Biberschick
DO - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Osteopathie. 2022; 20(04): 41
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101 Association between Family Functionality, Sociodemographic Factors, and Severity of Depression in Women with Infertility Attending a Gynecology Clinic in Northwest Nigeria
Ahmad Idris Rufai, Bukar Alhaji Grema, Musa Muhammad Bello, Godpower Chinedu Michael
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2022;
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102 Chemoprotective effect of vitexin against cisplatin-induced biochemical, spermatological, steroidogenic, hormonal, apoptotic and histopathological damages in the testes of Sprague-Dawley rats
Muhammad Umar Ijaz, Arfa Tahir, Hussain Ahmed, Asma Ashraf, Hanadi Talal Ahmedah, Liviu Muntean, Marius Moga, Marius Irimie
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2022;
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103 Studies on testicular ultrastructural and hormonal changes in type-2 diabetic rats treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy conjugated silver nanoparticles
Samuel O. Olojede, Sodiq K. Lawal, Okikioluwa S. Aladeyelu, Kehinde S. Olaniyi, Roshila Moodley, Carmen O. Rennie, Edwin C. Stephen Naidu, Onyemaechi O. Azu
Life Sciences. 2022; : 120498
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104 Letrozole: Pharmacology, toxicity and potential therapeutic effects
Anirban Goutam Mukherjee, Uddesh Ramesh Wanjari, Dhanushya Nagarajan, Vibhaa K K, Anagha V, Joshua Paul P, Tharani Priya T, Rituraj Chakraborty, Kaviyarasi Renu, Abhijit Dey, Balachandar Vellingiri, Abilash Valsala Gopalakrishnan
Life Sciences. 2022; : 121074
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105 Can we disregard geography when using the World Health Organization semen analysis reference ranges?
Kajal Khodamoradi, Emad Ibrahim
Fertility and Sterility. 2022;
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106 Sperm origin impact on early human embryo kinetics
M. Méndez, M. Guimerà, J.M. Corral, S. Cívico
Clínica e Investigación en Ginecología y Obstetricia. 2022; 49(3): 100750
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107 A meiotic switch in lysosome activity supports spermatocyte development in young flies but collapses with age
Tyler J. Butsch, Olga Dubuisson, Alyssa E. Johnson, K. Adam Bohnert
iScience. 2022; 25(6): 104382
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108 motilitAI: A machine learning framework for automatic prediction of human sperm motility
Sandra Ottl, Shahin Amiriparian, Maurice Gerczuk, Björn W. Schuller
iScience. 2022; 25(8): 104644
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109 Disposable paper-based microfluidics for fertility testing
Misagh Rezapour Sarabi, Defne Yigci, M. Munzer Alseed, Begum Aydogan Mathyk, Baris Ata, Cihan Halicigil, Savas Tasoglu
iScience. 2022; 25(9): 104986
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110 Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase function is essential for sperm motility and male fertility
Rachel M. Woodhouse, Natalya Frolows, Guoqiang Wang, Azelle Hawdon, Edmund Heng Kin Wong, Linda C. Dansereau, Yingying Su, Liam D. Adair, Elizabeth J. New, Ashleigh M. Philp, Wei Kang Tan, Andrew Philp, Alyson Ashe
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111 Skipping the first active meal appears to adversely alter reproductive function in female than male rats
Oluwakemi T. Oyelowo, Emmanuel O. Taire, Olubunmi I. Ajao
Current Research in Physiology. 2022;
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112 Role of dietary antioxidants and vitamins intake in semen quality parameters: A cross-sectional study
Farahnaz Haeri, Mehran Nouri, Shokufeh Nezamoleslami, Arezoo Moradi, Reza Ghiasvand
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2022;
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113 Developing biomedical engineering technologies for reproductive medicine
Yujuan Zhu, Bin Kong, Rui Liu, Yuanjin Zhao
Smart Medicine. 2022; 1(1)
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114 Male contraceptive development: A medicinal chemistry perspective
Neil R. Norcross, Irene Georgiou, Zoe C. Johnston, Franz S. Gruber, Jason R. Swedlow, Kevin D. Read, Christopher LR. Barratt, Ian H. Gilbert
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2022; : 114709
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115 The effects of radiofrequency exposure on male fertility and adverse reproductive outcomes: A protocol for two systematic reviews of human observational studies with meta-analysis
Ryan P.W. Kenny, Evelyn Barron Millar, Adenike Adesanya, Catherine Richmond, Fiona Beyer, Carolina Calderon, Judith Rankin, Mireille Toledano, Maria Feychting, Mark S Pearce, Dawn Craig, Fiona Pearson
Environment International. 2022; 158: 106968
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116 Bisphenol A damages testicular junctional proteins transgenerationally in mice
Elikanah Olusayo Adegoke, Md Saidur Rahman, Shereen Amjad, Won-Ki Pang, Do-Yeal Ryu, Yoo-Jin Park, Myung-Geol Pang
Environmental Pollution. 2022; 302: 119067
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117 Impact of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Reproductive Health of Human
Abhinandan Ghosh, Adrija Tripathy, Debidas Ghosh
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 2022;
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118 Automation in ART: Paving the Way for the Future of Infertility Treatment
Kadrina Abdul Latif Abdullah, Tomiris Atazhanova, Alejandro Chavez-Badiola, Sourima Biswas Shivhare
Reproductive Sciences. 2022;
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119 Assessment of the Role of Nuclear ENDOG Gene and mtDNA Variations on Paternal Mitochondrial Elimination (PME) in Infertile Men: An Experimental Study
Candan Eker, Mehmet Ulas Bilir, Hale Goksever Celik, Burcin Karamustafaoglu Balci, Tuba Gunel
Reproductive Sciences. 2022;
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120 Human kinematic and morphometric sperm subpopulation analysis using CASA technology: A new approach to spermatozoa classification
Almudena García-Molina, Nuria Navarro, Anthony Valverde, Daznia Bompart, Carina Caldeira, Alberto Vendrell, Carles Soler
Revista Internacional de Andrología. 2022;
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121 Zinc Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Imbalance and Bisphenol-A Exposure in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo: a possible adverse outcome pathway
Charalampos Chatzicharalampous, David Bai, Olivia G Camp, Narendra Joshi, Husam M. Abu-Soud
Advances in Redox Research. 2022; : 100032
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122 SVIA dataset: A new dataset of microscopic videos and images for computer-aided sperm analysis
Ao Chen, Chen Li, Shuojia Zou, Md Mamunur Rahaman, Yudong Yao, Haoyuan Chen, Hechen Yang, Peng Zhao, Weiming Hu, Wanli Liu, Marcin Grzegorzek
Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering. 2022;
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123 Common dysmorphic oocytes and embryos in assisted reproductive technology laboratory in association with gene alternations
Murong Xu, Waner Wu, Mingpeng Zhao, Jacqueline Pui Wah Chung, Tin Chiu Li, David Yiu Leung Chan
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2022; : 106298
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124 Fabrication on the microscale: a two-photon polymerized device for oocyte microinjection
Suliman H. Yagoub, Jeremy G. Thompson, Antony Orth, Kishan Dholakia, Brant C. Gibson, Kylie R. Dunning
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2022;
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125 A comprehensive investigation of human endogenous retroviral syncytin proteins and their receptors in men with normozoospermia and impaired semen quality
Gizem Gamze Tas, Bikem Soygur, Omer Kutlu, Leyla Sati
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2022;
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126 Predicting in vitro fertilization success in the Brazilian public health system: a machine learning approach
Nayara C. N. Barreto, Giulia Z. Castro, Ramon G. Pereira, Francisco A. N. Pereira, Fernando M. Reis, Wagner M. Junior, Ines K. D. Cavallo, Karina B. Gomes
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 2022;
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127 Microarray and in silico analysis of DNA repair genes between human testis of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and normal cells
Danial Hashemi Karoii, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella
Cell Biochemistry and Function. 2022;
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128 High-fat diet in mice led to increased severity of spermatogenesis impairment by lead exposure: perspective from gut microbiota and the efficacy of probiotics
Liehai Hu, Yu Zhao, Shanji Liu, Jinfeng Zhang, Hongbin Yuan, Hengyi Xu
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2022;
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129 Changes in Semen Analysis over Time: A Temporal Trend Analysis of 20 Years of Subfertile Non-Azoospermic Men
Nahid Punjani, Omar Al-Hussein Alawamlh, Soo Jeong Kim, Carolyn A. Salter, Gal Wald, Miriam Feliciano, Nicholas Williams, Vanessa Dudley, Marc Goldstein
The World Journal of Men's Health. 2022; 40
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130 A comparison of different O-antigen serogroups of Escherichia coli in semen samples of fertile and infertile men
Ali Nabi, Mohammad Bagher Khalili, Gilda Eslami, Mahmood Vakili, Fatemeh Anbari, Alireza Torki
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine. 2022; 49(1): 33
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131 Causes of Infertility: Diagnosis and Management With Microfluidic Sperm Sorter
Saurabh Chauhan, Akash More, Deepti Shrivastava, Ujwal Gajbe
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132 A Review on the Use of Letrozole in Female and Male Infertility
Sandhya Pajai, Jyotsana Potdar, Uplabdh Gopal, Tanvi Banait
Cureus. 2022;
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133 Effects of hydromethanol hypocotyls extract of Borassus aethiopum on sperm and gonadal indices of male Wistar rats
A. Ramalan Mansur, B. Shuaibu Adamu, H. Yaro Abdullahi
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2021; 15(11): 515
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134 Up-regulation of Arl4a gene expression by broccoli aqueous extract is associated with improved spermatogenesis in mouse testes
Omid Jazayeri, Setareh Farahmand Araghi, Tahereh A. Aghajanzadeh, Fereshteh Mir Moammadrezaei
Biomédica. 2021; 41(4): 706
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135 Effect of Acoustic Cavitation on Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells
Zeinab Hormozi Moghaddam, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mansoureh Movahedin
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2021; 40(5): 999
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136 Point-of-care semen analysis of patients with infertility via smartphone and colorimetric paper-based diagnostic device
Yu-Ting Tsao, Chung-Yao Yang, Yun-Chiao Wen, Ting-Chang Chang, Koji Matsuura, Yu Chen, Chao-Min Cheng
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine. 2021; 6(1)
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137 High cholesterol diet activates ER stress mediated apoptosis in testes tissue: Role of a-tocopherol
Erdi Sozen, Tugce Demirel-Yalciner, M. Kutay Koroglu, Merve Acikel Elmas, Feriha Ercan, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
IUBMB Life. 2021;
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138 Parabens enhance the calcium-dependent testicular mitochondrial permeability transition: Their relevance on the reproductive capacity in male animals
Fátima C. Martins, Romeu A. Videira, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Daniela Silva-Maia, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Francisco P. Peixoto
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2021; 35(3)
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139 Effect of Titanium Dioxide and Silver Nanoparticles on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mouse Testis Tissue
Nazli Pinar Arslan, Osman Nuri Keles, Nurdan Gonul-Baltaci
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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140 Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with infertility due to nonobstructive azoospermia: summary of current literature
Arnold P. P. Achermann, Thairo A. Pereira, Sandro C. Esteves
International Urology and Nephrology. 2021; 53(11): 2193
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141 Counteracting effects of heavy metals and antioxidants on male fertility
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Hamed Shoorei, Mahdi Mohaqiq, Moloud Tahmasebi, Mohammad Seify, Mohammad Taheri
BioMetals. 2021; 34(3): 439
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142 Genetic basis of acephalic spermatozoa syndrome, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in infertile men: a systematic scoping review
Marziyeh Mazaheri Moghaddam, Madiheh Mazaheri Moghaddam, Hamid Hamzeiy, Amir Baghbanzadeh, Fariba Pashazadeh, Ebrahim Sakhinia
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2021; 38(3): 573
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143 Fertility and pregnancy outcome among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment in Windhoek, Namibia
Adão Francisco Lucas, Dibaba B. Gemechu, Stefan S. Du Plessis, Yapo G. Aboua
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2021; 38(3): 635
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144 Comparison of spermatozoal RNA extraction methods in goats
Bijayalaxmi Sahoo, Praveen Kumar Guttula, Mukesh Kumar Gupta
Analytical Biochemistry. 2021; 614: 114059
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145 Comparison of the Effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. (Carob) Syrup and Vitamin E on Sperm Parameters, Oxidative Stress Index, and Sex Hormones in Infertile Men: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Mir Mohammad Reza Aghajani, Soleiman Mahjoub, Faraz Mojab, Mahshid Namdari, Neda Mahdinezhad Gorji, Afsaneh Dashtaki, Parvaneh Mirabi
Reproductive Sciences. 2021; 28(3): 766
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146 Male Factors: the Role of Sperm in Preimplantation Embryo Quality
Zahra Bashiri, Fardin Amidi, Iraj Amiri, Zahra Zandieh, Chad B. Maki, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Sadegh Amiri, Morteza Koruji
Reproductive Sciences. 2021; 28(7): 1788
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147 Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Spermatogenesis in Busulfan-Induced Infertile Mouse
Fatereh Rezaei, Mohammad Bayat, Hamid Nazarian, Abbas Aliaghaei, Hojjat-Allah Abaszadeh, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Abdollah Amini, Vahid Ebrahimi, Shabnam Abdi, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar
Reproductive Sciences. 2021; 28(10): 2789
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148 Diet Supplemented with Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don (Sapotaceae) Fruit Pulp Improves Reproductive Function in Hypertensive Male Rats
Seun F. Akomolafe, Tosin A. Olasehinde, Iyabo F. Oladapo, Sunday I. Oyeleye
Reproductive Sciences. 2021;
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149 Vitamin D3 Supplementation Effects on Spermatogram and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Asthenozoospermia Infertile Men: a Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Leila Maghsoumi-Norouzabad, Ahmad Zare Javid, Anahita Mansoori, Mohammadreza Dadfar, Amirarsalan Serajian
Reproductive Sciences. 2021;
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150 Effects of Medicines and Supplements on Spontaneous Pregnancy and Semen Parameters in Male Infertility: A Systematic Review Update and Network Meta-Analysis
Jian Li, Qi Wu, Ernest Hung Yu Ng, Ben Willem J. Mol, Xiao Ke Wu, Chi Chiu Wang
Engineering. 2021;
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151 Onset of azoospermia in man treated with ipilimumab/nivolumab for BRAF negative metastatic melanoma
Matthew J. Rabinowitz, Taylor P. Kohn, Vanessa N. Peña, Iryna V. Samarska, Andres Matoso, Amin S. Herati
Urology Case Reports. 2021; 34: 101488
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152 Effect of deep transfer and multi-task learning on sperm abnormality detection
Amir Abbasi, Erfan Miahi, Seyed Abolghasem Mirroshandel
Computers in Biology and Medicine. 2021; 128: 104121
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153 The effects of broccoli and caraway extracts on serum oxidative markers, testicular structure and function, and sperm quality before and after sperm cryopreservation
Mahdieh Raeeszadeh, Nadia khademi, Abolfazl Akbari
Cryobiology. 2021; 99: 11
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154 Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) exposure to lactating mice perturbs steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in adult male offspring
Debarshi Sarkar, Shio Kumar Singh
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021; 209: 111783
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155 A comprehensive Ayurvedic treatment along with counseling in oligoasthenozoospermia with previous intrauterine insemination failure-A case report
Vandana K. Vasudevan, Parvathy Unnikrishnan, Anjaly Muraleedharan, Hemavathi Shivapura Krishnarajabhatt
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2021; 12(1): 148
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156 TG12-T5-V470 haplotype in the CFTR gene is associated with non-obstructive azoospermia in Iranian infertile men
Azam Khedri, Amir Yousef Farahmandi, Mohammad Moghaveleh, Kourosh Akbari Baghbani, Saman Naddaf Khoob, Sahar Moghbelinejad, Fatemeh Asadi
Gene Reports. 2021; 23: 101095
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157 Ameliorating potential and fertility enhancing activities of nutritional dietary supplementation of D-Ribose –l-Cysteine in cisplatin induced oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and seminiferous epithelium degeneration in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats
Sunday Aderemi Adelakun, Babatunde Ogunlade, Kingley Afoke Iteire, Oluwafemi Abidemi Adedotun
Metabolism Open. 2021; 12: 100128
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158 Novel association of PhosphoSerine PHosphatase (PSPH) gene mutations with male infertility identified through whole exome sequencing of South Indians
Golnaz Shemshaki, Mohsen Najafi, Ashitha S. Niranjana Murthy, Suttur S. Malini
Meta Gene. 2021; 29: 100897
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159 Development and validation of a novel mail-in semen analysis system and the correlation between one hour and delayed semen analysis testing
Mary K. Samplaski, Owen Falk, Stanton Honig, David Shin, William Matthews, James F. Smith
Fertility and Sterility. 2021; 115(4): 922
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160 Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in ovary and effect of ?-linolenic acid on adipose tissue inflammation in a polycystic ovary syndrome model
Yogamaya D. Prabhu, Atreyee Borthakur, Subeka A.G, Balachandar Vellingiri, Abilash Valsala Gopalakrishnan
Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2021; 146: 103345
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161 Are Infertile Men Less Healthy Than Fertile Men? An Analysis of the National Survey for Family Growth
Jesse B. Persily, Sameer Thakker, William Beaty, Bobby B. Najari
Urology. 2021; 156: 134
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162 Postnatal cadmium administration affects the presence and distribution of carbohydrates in the sperm membrane during maturation in the epididymis in adult Wistar rats
Joel Hernández-Rodríguez, Edith Arenas-Ríos, Irma Jiménez-Morales, Edith Cortés-Barberena, Sergio Montes, Rosa María Vigueras-Villaseñor, Marcela Arteaga-Silva
Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2021; 33(5): 349
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163 A review of methods for preserving male fertility
Fereshteh Aliakbari, Neda Taghizabet, Faezeh Azizi, Fatemeh Rezaei-Tazangi, Keshvar Samadee Gelehkolaee, Ebrahim Kharazinejad
Zygote. 2021; : 1
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164 Assessing the clinical value of the Kruger strict morphology criteria over the World Health Organization fourth edition criteria
Gal Wald, Nahid Punjani, Russell Hayden, Miriam Feliciano, Vanessa Dudley, Marc Goldstein
F&S Reports. 2021; 2(2): 176
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165 Optimal timing for repeat semen analysis during male infertility evaluation
Nahid Punjani, Gal Wald, Omar Al-Hussein Alwamlh, Miriam Feliciano, Vanessa Dudley, Marc Goldstein
F&S Reports. 2021; 2(2): 172
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166 Barriers and factors associated with significant delays to initial consultation and treatment for infertile patients and partners of infertile patients
Alice Domar, Rita Vassena, Marjorie Dixon, Mauro Costa, Elena Vegni, Barbara Collura, Marie Markert, Carl Samuelsen, Jillian Guiglotto, Eva Roitmann, Jacky Boivin
Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 2021;
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167 Stem cell therapy as a recent advanced approach in male infertility
Ayshe Hajiesmailpoor, Payam Emami, Bahman Jalali Kondori, Masoud Ghorbani
Tissue and Cell. 2021; 73: 101634
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168 Metal(loid)s and human semen quality: The LIFE Study
Francesca M. Branch, Melissa J. Perry, Zhen Chen, Germaine M. Buck Louis
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169 Determining the need for fertility care and the acceptability and feasibility of administering a fertility awareness tool from the user’s perspective in a sample of Sudanese infertility patients
R.R. Bayoumi, E. Koert, S. Van der Poel, J. Boivin
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online. 2021; 13: 85
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170 Neuropeptides as regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity and their putative roles in stress-induced fertility disorders
Milosz Golyszny, Ewa Obuchowicz, Michal Zielinski
Neuropeptides. 2021; : 102216
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171 l-carnitine modulates autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammation in trazodone induced testicular toxicity
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172 Diverse role of endocannabinoid system in mammalian male reproduction
Tahseen S. Sayed, Nafisa H. Balasinor, Kumari Nishi
Life Sciences. 2021; 286: 120035
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173 An innovative approach to polycystic ovary syndrome
Mariano Bizzarri, Patrizia Logoteta, Giovanni Monastra, Antonio Simone Laganà
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2021; : 1
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174 Association between the presence of Mycoplasma spp. and male infertility
Sajad Babakhani, Marziyeh Eslami, Mohammad Javad Kazemi, Mohammad Sadegh Shirsalimian, Sajad Rajabi
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2021; : 1
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175 Effects of quetiapine administration on sperm quality and testicular histology
Busra Korkut Celikates, Volkan Kilic, Ozlem Atli-Eklioglu, Merve Baysal, Gozde Aydogan-Kilic, Seyda Ucarcan, Sinem Ilgin
Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2021; : 1
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176 Sildenafil aggravates adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in rats; a preliminary investigation
Anne A. Adeyanju, Omolola R. Oyenihi, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Oreoluwa Ojomu
Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2021; : 1
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177 Aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of alkaloidal fraction of Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) Bojer roots in male rats
Niraj Vyas, Manan Raval
Natural Product Research. 2021; : 1
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178 DNA variants are an unlikely explanation for the changing quality of spermatozoa within the same individual
Jacob Netherton, Rachel Ogle, Louise Hetherington, Tony Velkov, Ryan Rose, Mark Baker
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179 The effects of tobacco and cannabis use on semen and endocrine parameters in infertile males
Nawabzada Khan, Mohsin Shah, Muhammad Omar Malik, Haroon Badshah, Syed Hamid Habib, Inayat Shah, Fawad Ali Shah
Human Fertility. 2021; : 1
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180 Sperm performance in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients is induced by a nutraceuticals mix, containing mainly myo-inositol
Marta Santoro, Saveria Aquila, Giampiero Russo
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine. 2021; 67(1): 50
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181 Current updates and future perspectives in the evaluation of azoospermia: A systematic review
Nahid Punjani, Caroline Kang, Dolores J. Lamb, Peter N. Schlegel
Arab Journal of Urology. 2021; 19(3): 206
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182 Sperm selection strategies and their impact on assisted reproductive technology outcomes
Soraia Pinto, David F. Carrageta, Marco G. Alves, António Rocha, Ashok Agarwal, Alberto Barros, Pedro F. Oliveira
Andrologia. 2021; 53(2)
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183 The role of infections and leukocytes in male infertility
Ralf Henkel, Ugochukwu Offor, David Fisher
Andrologia. 2021; 53(1)
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184 Redox Regulation to Modulate Phosphorylation Events in Human Spermatozoa
Steven Serafini, Cristian O'Flaherty
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2021;
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185 L-amino acid oxidase 1 in sperm is associated with reproductive performance in male mice and bulls
Haolin Zhang, Hong Liu, Sachi Kataoka, Masashi Kinukawa, Kyoko Uchiyama, Jun Kambe, Gen Watanabe, Wanzhu Jin, Kentaro Nagaoka
Biology of Reproduction. 2021; 104(5): 1154
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186 When idiopathic male infertility is rooted in maternal malnutrition during the perinatal period in mice
Yuki Muranishi, Laurent Parry, Mélanie Vachette-Dit-Martin, Fabrice Saez, Cécile Coudy-Gandilhon, Pierre Sauvanet, David H Volle, Jérémy Tournayre, Serge Bottari, Francesca Carpentiero, Guillaume Martinez, Jana Muronová, Jessica Escoffier, Alain Bruhat, Anne-Catherine Maurin, Julien Averous, Christophe Arnoult, Pierre Fafournoux, Céline Jousse
Biology of Reproduction. 2021;
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187 Mutations in DNAH8 contribute to multiple morphological abnormalities of sperm flagella and male infertility
Mingxiang Weng, Yanwei Sha, Y u Zeng, Ningyu Huang, Wensheng Liu, Xinzong Zhang, Huiliang Zhou
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica. 2021; 53(4): 472
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188 The effects of Vitamin D3 supplementation on Spermatogram and endocrine factors in asthenozoospermia infertile men: a randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Leila Maghsoumi-Norouzabad, Ahmad Zare Javid, Anahita Mansoori, Mohammadreza Dadfar, Amirarsalan Serajian
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2021; 19(1)
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189 The Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Semen Parameters and IVF Outcome: A Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Soudabeh Sabetian, Bahia Namavar Jahromi, Sina Vakili, Sedighe Forouhari, Shohreh Alipour, Seyithan Taysi
BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: 1
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190 Protective Effect of Nano-Vitamin C on Infertility due to Oxidative Stress Induced by Lead and Arsenic in Male Rats
Mahdieh Raeeszadeh, Behzad Karimfar, Ali Akbar Amiri, Abolfazl Akbari, Hangbiao Jin
Journal of Chemistry. 2021; 2021: 1
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191 A low protein maternal diet during gestation has negative effects on male fertility markers in rats – A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Peter K. Ajuogu, Mohammed A. K. Al-Aqbi, Robert A. Hart, James R. McFarlane, Neil A. Smart
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2021; 105(1): 157
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192 The effectiveness of weight-loss lifestyle interventions for improving fertility in women and men with overweight or obesity and infertility: A systematic review update of evidence from randomized controlled trials
Emma Hunter, Alison Avenell, Abha Maheshwari, Gertraud Stadler, Damian Best
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193 Impaired fertility in men diagnosed with inflammatory arthritis: results of a large multicentre study (iFAME-Fertility)
Luis Fernando Perez-Garcia, Esther Röder, Robbert J Goekoop, Johanna M W Hazes, Marc R Kok, Hieronymus T W Smeele, Ilja Tchetverikov, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil, Jos H van der Kaap, Petra Kok, Bouwe P Krijthe, Radboud J E M Dolhain
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2021; 80(12): 1545
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194 Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera reduced intracellular ROS production, DNA fragmentation and acrosome reaction in Human spermatozoa in vitro
Faith T. Moichela, Gbenga A. Adefolaju, Ralf R. Henkel, Chinyerum S. Opuwari
Andrologia. 2021; 53(1)
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195 SERPIN A5 may have a potential as a biomarker in reflecting the improvement of semen quality in infertile men who underwent varicocele repair
Kerem Teke, Murat Kasap, Emrah Simsek, Ayimgul Uzunyol, Ali Kemal Uslubas, Gurler Akpinar, Mustafa Melih Culha
Andrologia. 2021; 53(7)
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196 Assessment of serum vitamin D level and seminal vitamin D receptor gene methylation in a sample of Egyptian men with idiopathic infertility
Tarek M. Hussein, Nermeen Eldabah, Hadil A. Zayed, Rasha M. Genedy
Andrologia. 2021; 53(9)
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197 Abnormal Y chromosome detection in infertile males using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification
Xiaoying Dai, Fu Shi, Cindy Ka Yee Cheung, Jue Li, Shengmou Lin
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198 Baseline levels of seminal reactive oxygen species predict improvements in sperm function following antioxidant therapy in men with infertility
Wayne Vessey, Shaghayegh Saifi, Aditi Sharma, Cassandra McDonald, Paula Almeida, Monica Figueiredo, Suks Minhas, Ashraf Virmani, Waljit S. Dhillo, Jonathan W. Ramsay, Channa N. Jayasena
Clinical Endocrinology. 2021; 94(1): 102
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199 The impact of the origin of surgical sperm retrieval on placental and embryonic development: The Rotterdam Periconception cohort
Jeffrey Hoek, Willem P. A. Boellaard, Eva S. Marion, Sten P. Willemsen, Esther.B. Baart, Régine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen, Sam Schoenmakers
Andrology. 2021; 9(2): 599
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200 Evaluation of the potential role of shear wave elastography as a promising predictor of sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermic patients: A prospective study
Alaaeldien Mohamed Abdelmoniem Abdelaal, Hatem Mohamed El-Azizi, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din, Omar Abdulsalam Mohammad Azzazi, Mohamed Shokr Mohamed
Andrology. 2021; 9(5): 1481
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201 Regional and ethnic differences in semen quality and reproductive hormones in Russia: A Siberian population-based cohort study of young men
Ludmila Osadchuk, Larisa Shantanova, Ivan Troev, Maxim Kleshchev, Alexander Osadchuk
Andrology. 2021; 9(5): 1512
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202 Cytomegalovirus infection and male infertility: case report
V. ?. Kovalyk, V. V. Malinovskaya, A. N. Shuvalov, L. F. Kurilo, ?. I. Yurlov, ? A. Gomberg, A. A. Kushch
Andrology and Genital Surgery. 2021; 22(1): 85
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203 The effect of preparatory therapy with myo-inositol on the outcome of infertility treatment by ART in men with low reproductive function
O.M. Feskov, Y.S. Zhylkova, H.V. Nesteruk, I.K. Osovskyi, ?.?. Feskova
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204 Downregulation of KIF2C and TEKT2 is associated with male infertility and testicular carcinoma
Haiming Cao, Zi Wan, Fei Wang, Ziyin Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Jianquan Hou
Aging. 2021; 13(19): 22898
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205 Herbal foodstuffs in Avicenna’s recommended diet to improve sperm quality and increase male fertility; an evidence-based approach
Azita Sadogh, Narjes Gorji, Reihaneh Moeini
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2021; 0(0)
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206 MiR-181a Promotes Spermatogenesis by Targeting the S6K1 Pathway
Lei Wang, Juan Sun, Jin Han, Zhaowen Ma, Meiling Pan, Zhaojin Du
International Journal of Stem Cells. 2021; 14(3): 341
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207 Copy Number Variation Analysis in Turkish Patients with Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens
Durkadin DEMIR EKSI, Elanur YILMAZ, Yigit AKIN, Mustafa Faruk USTA, Mehmet Murad BASAR, Semra KAHRAMAN, Munire ERMAN, Özgül M. ALPER
Acta Medica Alanya. 2021;
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G. A Demyashkin
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Yohanes Widyakusuma Eka Saputra, Kristanti Wanito Wigati, Rina Yudiwati, Ni Wajan Tirthaningsih
Majalah Biomorfologi. 2021; 31(2): 31
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211 Y-Chromosome Microdeletions: A Review of Prevalence, Screening, and Clinical Considerations
Matthew J Rabinowitz, Phillip J Huffman, Nora M Haney, Taylor P Kohn
The Application of Clinical Genetics. 2021; Volume 14: 51
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212 Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Improves Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Dysfunction by Enhancing Steroidogenesis and Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Ni Li, Yan Xing, Afrah Hameed Sultan, Mahdieh Raeeszadeh, Abolfazl Akbari, Haining Liu
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2021; 64
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213 Antioxidant-Based Therapies in Male Infertility: Do We Have Sufficient Evidence Supporting Their Effectiveness?
Angela Maria Amorini, Ilaria Listorti, Gabriele Bilotta, Romina Pallisco, Miriam Wissam Saab, Renata Mangione, Benedetta Manca, Giacomo Lazzarino, Barbara Tavazzi, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Pasquale Bilotta
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214 Improving Reproductive Performance and Health of Mammals Using Honeybee Products
Nesrein M. Hashem, Eman M. Hassanein, Jesus Simal-Gandara
Antioxidants. 2021; 10(3): 336
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215 Effect of Copper Sulphate and Cadmium Chloride on Non-Human Primate Sperm Function In Vitro
Farren Hardneck, Charon de Villiers, Liana Maree
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12): 6200
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216 Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Factor in Male Infertility: Awareness in Health College Students in the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia
Mohammad S. Akhter, Hassan A. Hamali, Johar Iqbal, Abdullah A. Mobarki, Hina Rashid, Gasim Dobie, Aymen M. Madkhali, Bader Y. H Arishi, Emad O. O. Ageeli, Osama S. H. Laghbi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(24): 12866
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217 Role of Lactobacillus in Female Infertility Via Modulating Sperm Agglutination and Immobilization
Fenghao Zhang, Jie Dai, Tingtao Chen
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021; 10
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218 Whole-Exome Sequencing Analysis of Human Semen Quality in Russian Multiethnic Population
Semyon Kolmykov, Gennady Vasiliev, Ludmila Osadchuk, Maxim Kleschev, Alexander Osadchuk
Frontiers in Genetics. 2021; 12
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219 Effectiveness of Pharmacological Intervention Among Men with Infertility: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Muhammad Nabeel Shahid, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Chin Fen Neoh, Qi Ying Lean, Allah Bukhsh, Mahmathi Karuppannan
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021; 12
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220 Oral Antioxidant Treatment of Men Significantly Improves the Reproductive Outcome of IVF Cycles
Paola Scaruffi, Emanuele Licata, Elena Maccarini, Claudia Massarotti, Francesca Bovis, Fausta Sozzi, Sara Stigliani, Alessandro Dal Lago, Ida Casciano, Rocco Rago, Paola Anserini
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(15): 3254
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221 Technological Advancements in Male Infertility Microsurgery
Nahid Punjani, Caroline Kang, Richard K. Lee, Marc Goldstein, Philip S. Li
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(18): 4259
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222 Oxidative Stress, Testicular Inflammatory Pathways, and Male Reproduction
Sulagna Dutta, Pallav Sengupta, Petr Slama, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18): 10043
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Pankaj Kumar Chaudhary, Anupam Chaurasia, Lata Shukla Dwivedy, Debarshi Jana
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224 The Impact of Luteinizing Hormone/Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism rs68073206 in Men with Non-obstructive Azoospermia: A Case-control Study
Abdul-Rahim A. Ali, Omar F. Abdul-Rasheed, Ula M. Al-Kawaz
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021; 9(A): 894
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225 Favorable outcome of r-FSH treatment in male with homozygous Ser680ASN variant in FSHR gene: a case report demonstrating pharmacogenomic implication in male infertility
Anuradha Udumudi, Narmada Katakam
Fertility Science and Research. 2021; 8(2): 185
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226 Evidence for Ovarian and Testicular Toxicities of Cadmium and Detoxification by Natural Substances
Martin Massányi, Soisungwan Satarug, Roberto Madeddu, Robert Stawarz, Peter Massányi
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227 Male infertility: A scoping review of prevalence, causes and treatments
KiratiM Shah, KananG Gamit, MananA Raval, NirajY Vyas
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction. 2021; 10(5): 195
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228 Yq AZF microdeletions in male infertility: An update on the phenotypic spectrum, epidemiology and diagnostics
Awanish Jaiswal, Anurag Pandey, Mamta Tiwari, Akhtar Ali, Rohit Sharma
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction. 2021; 10(5): 203
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229 Sperm Abnormalities: In the Male Partners of Infertile Couples from Kanyakumari District
Neena Viswambharan, Murugan Manavalan
International Journal of Infertility & Fetal Medicine. 2021; 11(1): 16
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230 Effective management of Kshinashukradushti (Oligoasthenospermia) with Ayurveda: a case report
P Binitha, KshirodKumar Ratha, RA Vahab
Journal of Indian System of Medicine. 2021; 9(1): 45
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231 Role of maternal nutritional supplementation on the hormonal profile and immunohistochemical analysis of testicular development of fetal rats
TaiwoO Kusemiju, OlasunmboO Afolayan, Babatunde Ogunlade
Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Biosciences. 2021; 9(3): 172
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232 The association between Angiopoietin-2 and the risk of recurrent implantation failure
Laith S Abdulhaleem, Omar F Abdul-Rasheed, Salwa J Abdullah Al-Awadi, Thuraya H Abdullah
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; : 2031
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233 Clinical Update on Home Testing for Male Fertility
Daniel Gonzalez, Manish Narasimman, Jordan C. Best, Jesse Ory, Ranjith Ramasamy
The World Journal of Men's Health. 2021; 39(4): 615
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234 A Global Survey of Reproductive Specialists to Determine the Clinical Utility of Oxidative Stress Testing and Antioxidant Use in Male Infertility
Ashok Agarwal, Renata Finelli, Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Kristian Leisegang, Ahmad Majzoub, Nicholas Tadros, Edmund Ko, Neel Parekh, Ralf Henkel, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, Giovanni M. Colpi, Chak-Lam Cho, Hassan N. Sallam, Hyun Jun Park, Ramadan Saleh, Sava Micic, Rafael F. Ambar, Armand Zini, Kelton Tremellen, Juan G. Alvarez, Ayad Palani, Mohamed Arafa, Marcello M. Gava, Sunil Jindal, Edouard Amar, Zsolt Kopa, Mohammad-Reza Moein, Gian Maria Busetto, Pallav Sengupta, Parviz Kavoussi, Israel Maldonado, Jamal Fikri, Edson Borges, Marlon Martinez, Djordje Bojovic, Osvaldo Rajmil, Kaan Aydos, Sijo Parekattil, Joel L. Marmar, Omar Sefrioui, Andreas Jungwirth, Marcelo Gabriel Rodriguez Peña, Emerson B. Cordts, Haitham Elbardisi, Taymour Mostafa, Marjan Sabbaghian, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Yoshiharu Morimoto, Marco G. Alves, Aleksandra Spasic, Uros Kenic, Jonathan Ramsay, Ebenezer Oluwole Akande, Amina Oumeziane, Dmitri Dozortsev, Eric Chung, Ernestine Gwet Bell, Adolfo Allegra, Va
The World Journal of Men's Health. 2021; 39(3): 470
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235 Sperm Morphology Assessment in the Era of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: Reliable Results Require Focus on Standardization, Quality Control, and Training
Ashok Agarwal, Rakesh Sharma, Sajal Gupta, Renata Finelli, Neel Parekh, Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Ralf Henkel, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, Camila Pompeu, Sarah Madani, Andrea Belo, Neha Singh, Simryn Covarrubias, Sara Darbandi, Raha Sadeghi, Mahsa Darbandi, Paraskevi Vogiatzi, Florence Boitrelle, Mara Simopoulou, Ramadan Saleh, Mohamed Arafa, Ahmad Majzoub, Hussein Kandil, Armand Zini, Edmund Ko, Juan G. Alvarez, Marlon Martinez, Jonathan Ramsay, Sunil Jindal, Gian Maria Busetto, Hassan Sallam, Israel Maldonado, Christina Anagnostopoulou, Marco G. Alves, Pallav Sengupta, Kambiz Gilany, Donald P. Evenson, Sheena E.M. Lewis, Jaime Gosalvez, Rafael F. Ambar, Rupin Shah
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236 Comparison of the Activated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with Human Placental Gonadotropin Method with Platelet-Rich Plasma on Pregnancy Success Rate after Embryo Transfer
Mahnaz Yanangi, Tayebe Artimani, Narges Sajedi, Jalal Poorolajal, Faranak Pour Monsef
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 27(3): 133
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237 Deep Learning Based Evaluation of Spermatozoid Motility for Artificial Insemination
Viktorija Valiuškaite, Vidas Raudonis, Rytis Maskeliunas, Robertas Damaševicius, Tomas Krilavicius
Sensors. 2020; 21(1): 72
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238 Membrane Potential Determined by Flow Cytometry Predicts Fertilizing Ability of Human Sperm
Lis C. Puga Molina, Stephanie Gunderson, Joan Riley, Pascal Lybaert, Aluet Borrego-Alvarez, Emily S. Jungheim, Celia M. Santi
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2020; 7
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239 Metformin Ameliorates Testicular Function and Spermatogenesis in Male Mice with High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet-Induced Obesity
Chin-Yu Liu, Ting-Chia Chang, Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Sheng-Tang Wu, Tai-Lung Cha, Chih-Wei Tsao
Nutrients. 2020; 12(7): 1932
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240 Proposition of Belief and Practice Theory for Men Undergoing Infertility Treatment: A Hospital Based Study in Mumbai, India
Anshu Baranwal, Aparajita Chattopadhyay
Frontiers in Sociology. 2020; 5
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241 Positive Roles of Resveratrol in Early Development of Testicular Germ Cells against Maternal Restraint Stress in Mice
Sheeraz Mustafa, Wael Ennab, Korejo Nazar, Quanwei Wei, Zengpeng Lv, Zhicheng Shi, Fangxiong Shi
Animals. 2020; 10(1): 122
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242 The Role of Zinc in Male Fertility
Deborah Allouche-Fitoussi, Haim Breitbart
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(20): 7796
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243 Time-Lapse Flow Cytometry: A Robust Tool to Assess Physiological Parameters Related to the Fertilizing Capability of Human Sperm
Arturo Matamoros-Volante, Valeria Castillo-Viveros, Paulina Torres-Rodríguez, Marcela B. Treviño, Claudia L. Treviño
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 22(1): 93
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244 Relationship of Seminal Oxidation-Reduction Potential with Sperm DNA Integrity and pH in Idiopathic Infertile Patients
Sergio Garcia-Segura, Jordi Ribas-Maynou, Sandra Lara-Cerrillo, Agustín Garcia-Peiró, Ana Belén Castel, Jordi Benet, Maria Oliver-Bonet
Biology. 2020; 9(9): 262
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245 Effects and Mechanisms of Phthalates’ Action on Reproductive Processes and Reproductive Health: A Literature Review
Henrieta Hlisníková, Ida Petrovicová, Branislav Kolena, Miroslava Šidlovská, Alexander Sirotkin
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18): 6811
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246 Measuring Fertility Health Knowledge in University Students: Development and Testing of a Survey Tool
Mary Lee Barron, Diana Lithgow, Gail Wade, Georgia Mueller-Luckey
Journal of Nursing Measurement. 2020; 28(1): 43
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247 Exploring Iranian Women’s Perceptions and Experiences of Their Spouses’ Behavior towards Male Factor Infertility: A Qualitative Study
Ali Taghipour, Fatemeh Zahra Karimi, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari
Current Women s Health Reviews. 2020; 16(1): 60
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248 Genetic and reproductive toxicity of lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, efavirenz and their combination in the bone marrow and testicular cells of male mice
Adekunle A. Bakare, Kehinde M. Akinseye, Bayonle A. Aminu, Francis C. Ofoegbu, Saheed O. Anifowose, Stork Abruda, Opeoluwa M. Fadoju, Olusegun I. Ogunsuyi, Ifeoluwa T. Oyeyemi, Okunola A. Alabi, Olusola M. Adetona, Chibuisi G. Alimba
Annals of Science and Technology. 2020; 5(1): 1
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249 Secretory and Excretory Function of Testicles in Conditions of Serotonin Disorder of Spermatogenesis and Experimental Correction of Chondroitin Sulphate
N. M. Brechka, Ye. M. Korenieva, B. A. Bondarenko, V. V. Kozar, D. V. Morozenko, O. V. Shcherbak, L. A. Sirotenko, N. F. Velichko, S. V. Ivannikova
Ukraïns'kij žurnal medicini, bìologìï ta sportu. 2020; 5(3): 403
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250 Genes predisposing to syndromic and nonsyndromic infertility: a narrative review
Tajudeen O. Yahaya, Usman U. Liman, Haliru Abdullahi, Yahuza S. Koko, Samuel S. Ribah, Zulkarnain Adamu, Suleiman Abubakar
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. 2020; 21(1)
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251 Rutin protects boar sperm from cryodamage via enhancing the antioxidative defense
Dejun Xu, Lin Wu, Li Yang, Dingbang Liu, Huali Chen, Guoxia Geng, Qingwang Li
Animal Science Journal. 2020; 91(1)
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252 Association of polymorphism c.-124G>A and c.-16 C>T in the promoter region of human INHA gene with altered sperm parameters; A pilot study
Wardah Rafaqat, Muhammad Rohan Kayani, Tasneem Fatima, Saeeda Shaharyar, Shagufta Khan, Mussarat Ashraf, Usman Afzal, Rehana Rehman
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2020; 74(10)
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253 Sperm morphology: What implications on the assisted reproductive outcomes?
Gianmartin Cito, Rita Picone, Rossella Fucci, Claudia Giachini, Elisabetta Micelli, Andrea Cocci, Patrizia Falcone, Andrea Minervini, Marco Carini, Alessandro Natali, Maria E. Coccia
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254 The Effect of Genetically Modified Food on Infertility Indices: A Systematic Review Study
Parisa Keshani, Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Heydari, Hassan Joulaei
The Scientific World Journal. 2020; 2020: 1
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255 Experiences of Infertile Couples of West Bengal With Male Factor, Female Factor, and Unexplained Infertility Factor: A Qualitative Study
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256 Association of depression and resilience with fertility quality of life among patients presenting to the infertility centre for treatment in Karachi, Pakistan
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257 A Prospective Cohort Study to Evaluate the Impact of Diet, Exercise, and Lifestyle on Fertility: Design and Baseline Characteristics
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American Journal of Epidemiology. 2020; 189(11): 1254
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258 A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Effects of Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation on Male Fertility and Livebirth: Design and Baseline Characteristics
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259 Knockout of mouse receptor accessory protein 6 leads to sperm function and morphology defects†
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260 Chronic testicular Chlamydia muridarum infection impairs mouse fertility and offspring development†
Emily R Bryan, Kate A Redgrove, Alison R Mooney, Bettina P Mihalas, Jessie M Sutherland, Alison J Carey, Charles W Armitage, Logan K Trim, Avinash Kollipara, Peter B M Mulvey, Ella Palframan, Gemma Trollope, Kristofor Bogoevski, Robert McLachlan, Eileen A McLaughlin, Kenneth W Beagley
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261 Photobiomodulation with 810?nm Wavelengths Improves Human Sperms' Motility and Viability In Vitro
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262 Impact of silymarin on cadmium-induced apoptosis in human spermatozoa
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263 Melatonin protects the mouse testis against heat-induced damage
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264 Effect of lycopene on testicular androgenic and anti-oxidative enzymes in cyproterone acetate-induced male infertile Wistar strain albino rats: An in vitro study
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265 Failure modes and effects analysis for testicular sperm extraction management process
Pierandrea Canepa, Caterina De Leo, Ida Casciano, Camilla Rizzo, Fausta Sozzi, Francesca Ambrosini, Carlo Terrone, Aldo F. De Rose, Paola Anserini, Paola Scaruffi
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266 Coenzyme Q10 effect on semen parameters: Profound or meagre?
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267 Aquaporin3 expression and the potential role of aquaporins in motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in human spermatozoa
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268 Oxidative stress markers in seminal plasma of idiopathic infertile men may be associated with glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null genotypes
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269 Producing Parenthood: Islamic Bioethical Perspectives & Normative Implications
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270 Clomiphene citrate improved testosterone and sperm concentration in hypogonadal males
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271 Publication or pregnancy? Employment contracts and childbearing of women academics in China
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272 Gamete preservation: knowledge, concerns and intentions of Israeli and Danish students regarding egg and sperm freezing
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273 Care Delivery for Male Infertility
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274 Microfluidic System for Rapid Isolation of Sperm From Microdissection TESE Specimens
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275 In Vitro Meiosis of Male Germline Stem Cells
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276 Low dose lead exposure at the onset of puberty disrupts spermatogenesis-related gene expression and causes abnormal spermatogenesis in mouse
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277 The occurrence and pathology of chlamydiosis in the male reproductive tract of non-human mammals: A review
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278 Sperm DNA fragmentation index and high DNA stainability do not influence pregnancy success after intracytoplasmic sperm injection
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279 Online access to male factor infertility care: the challenge of finding a specialist
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280 SPANX-A/D protein subfamily plays a key role in nuclear organisation, metabolism and flagellar motility of human spermatozoa
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281 Germline-dependent transmission of male reproductive traits induced by an endocrine disruptor, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, in future generations
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282 Age negatively impacts reproduction in high-ranking male rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico
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283 Optimization of a microfluidic spiral channel used to separate sperm from blood cells
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284 Access to infertility services: characterizing potentially infertile men in the United States with the use of the National Survey for Family Growth
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285 Male infertility and genitourinary birth defects: there is more than meets the eye
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286 Role of IL-6 signalling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome associated inflammation
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287 Quantification of human sperm concentration using machine learning-based spectrophotometry
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288 CRISPR/Cas9 in Male Factor Infertility
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289 When the Path to Parenthood Does Not Go as Planned: Genetic Counseling for Infertility and Miscarriage
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290 SYCP2 Translocation-Mediated Dysregulation and Frameshift Variants Cause Human Male Infertility
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291 Oral supplementation of fucoxanthin-rich brown algae extract ameliorates cisplatin-induced testicular damage in hamsters
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292 Integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data reveals metabolic pathway alteration in mouse spermatogonia with the effect of copper exposure
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293 Clinical implications of Y chromosome microdeletions among infertile men
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294 Genetic mutations contributing to non-obstructive azoospermia
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295 Role of Aquaporins in Spermatogenesis and Testicular Steroidogenesis
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296 Mini review: The FDA-approved prescription drugs that induce ovulation in women with ovulatory problems
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297 Head-attached live sperm cell for label-free micro-Raman evaluation of sperm DNA integrity: A preliminary study
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299 Effect of heavy metals on oxidative markers and semen quality parameters in HF crossbred bulls
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300 Association of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor ( AhRR )-c.565C>G transversion with male infertility: A case-control study from Iran
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301 Sperm microRNA pairs: new perspectives in the search for male fertility biomarkers
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309 Introduction
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310 Effect of dibutyl phthalate on expression of connexin 43 and testosterone production of leydig cells in adult rats
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