Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2015| October-December  | Volume 8 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 25, 2015

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Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature
Naina Kumar, Amit Kant Singh
October-December 2015, 8(4):191-196
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170370  PMID:26752853
Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8-12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40-50% is due to "male factor" infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility.
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A rare case of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome with multiple leiomyomas in hypoplastic uterus
Maithili Mandar Kulkarni, Sanjay D Deshmukh, Kishor Hol, Neha Nene
October-December 2015, 8(4):242-244
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170418  PMID:26752861
Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare disorder described as aplasia or hypoplasia of uterus and vagina due to an early arrest in development of mullerian ducts. Women with this syndrome are characterized by the presence of 46 XX karyotype, normal female secondary sex characters, normal ovarian functions, and underdeveloped vagina. The presence of leiomyoma in MRKH syndrome is very rare, and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of MRKH syndrome with multiple leiomyomas originating from the rudimentary horn of uterus in 25 years married, phenotypically female patient.
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Clomiphene citrate, metformin or a combination of both as the first line ovulation induction drug for Asian Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A randomized controlled trial
Sujata Kar, Smriti Sanchita
October-December 2015, 8(4):197-201
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170373  PMID:26752854
Aim: To compare clomiphene citrate (CC), metformin or the combination of CC and metformin as the first line ovulation induction drug in Asian Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: One hundred and five newly diagnosed, treatment naive PCOS women were recruited. They were randomized into any of the three groups: Group I (CC 50-150 mg/day), Group II (metformin 1700 mg/day), and Group III (CC + metformin in similar dosage to Groups I and II). Patients underwent follicular monitoring and advice on timed intercourse. The study period was 6 months, or till pregnant, or till CC resistant. Primary outcome studied was live birth rate (LBR). Secondary outcomes were ovulation rate, pregnancy rate, and early pregnancy loss rate. Results: There was no significant difference among the groups in baseline characteristics and biochemical parameters. LBR was 41.6%, 37.5%, and 28.1%, respectively in Groups III, II, and I. Group III (CC + metformin) had the highest ovulation (83.3%), pregnancy (50%), and LBRs (41.6%). Group II (metformin) was as good as Group I (CC) in all the outcomes. CC + metformin (Group III) had statistically significantly higher ovulation rate as compared to CC alone (Group I) (P = 0.03; odds ratio: 95% confidence interval: 3.888 [1.08-13.997]). Conclusion: Thus, our study shows that metformin was as good as CC in terms of "LBR" and the combination of CC and metformin gave the highest ovulation and LBR.
  2,528 175 -
Role of Embryo Glue as a transfer medium in the outcome of fresh non-donor in-vitro fertilization cycles
Neeta Singh, Monica Gupta, Alka Kriplani, Perumal Vanamail
October-December 2015, 8(4):214-217
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170398  PMID:26752856
Background: EmbryoGlue is a hyaluronan-enriched embryo transfer (ET) medium which aids in implantation of embryos, hence, improves pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization-ET cycles (IVF-ET). Aim: To evaluate the role of EmbryoGlue in improving implantation and pregnancy rates. Design and Setting: A prospective case-control study conducted at assisted reproductive center of a tertiary care hospital. Method: In 42 women undergoing IVF, embryos were transferred into 50 μL of EmbryoGlue for 10 min prior to transfer inside uterine cavity. In the control group (n = 42), embryos were transferred to conventional blastocyst culture medium. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS IBM version 19.0. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate in the study group was 7% higher than the control group. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. In addition, no improvement in implantation rates was observed in the study group. However, significant difference (P = 0.04) in clinical pregnancy rate was observed with the EmbryoGlue in patients with previous IVF failure. In the study group, 50% patients (6/12) with previous IVF failure had successful implantation, but in the control group none of the patients (0/11) with previous implantation failure could achieve pregnancy. Conclusion: It is difficult to conclude a favourable role of EmbryoGlue in IVF-ET cycles with a good prognosis. However, in patients with recurrent implantation failure, it may be considered as a useful transfer medium.
  2,488 130 -
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in relation to body mass index and polycystic ovarian syndrome in Indian women
Sangita Sharma, Abha Majumdar
October-December 2015, 8(4):202-208
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170394  PMID:26752855
Objective: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS) in Indian women and to see how does it correlate to body mass index (BMI) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in this population. Study Design: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Infertility clinic of a tertiary center.  Materials and Methods: Two hundred women, 120 with PCOs and 80 age-matched controls were enrolled. The prevalence of MBS was studied in the women with and without and was co related to BMI by further subgrouping as team (BMI <23 kg/m3) and obese (BMI >23 kg/m2). The sample size was: team controls-40, obese controls-40, team PCOS-80. Each subject underwent a physical examination and laboratory evaluation for the diagnosis of MBS, which was defined according to the guidelines of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Pamel (NCEP ATP III) 2005. INTERVENTION: None. Main Outcome Measures: Main Outcome Measures: Subjects with and without PCOs were compared with each other for the prevalence of MBS, and similarly team subjects were compared with obese subjects. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained for both the PCOS and non PCOS population separately, co-relating the prevalence of MBS with BMI. These ROC curves were used to establish the cut off values of BMI, which could best predict the risk of MBS. Results: The prevalence of MBS was significantly higher in the women with PCOS, as compared to age-matched controls. Similarly, when BMI was considered, MBS was more prevalent in overweight subjects than in lean subjects with or without PCOS. In subgroup analysis, the presence of PCOS had a lesser impact on the prevalence of MBS as compared to non-PCOS controls with higher BMI. The relative risk of MBS increased as follows: lean controls-1, lean PCOS-2.66, obese controls-5.33, and obese PCOS-6.5. The most appropriate cut-off level of BMI for predicting the risk of MBS in Indian women without PCOS seems to be 23 kg/m 2 , whereas, with PCOS, it was 22.5 kg/m 2 . Conclusion: MBS is more prevalent in women with PCOS. However, obesity is an independent and stronger risk factor for developing MBS. To reduce the risk of MBS and its related long-term health consequences, lifestyle modification is advisable above BMI of 23 kg/m 2 in the normal population and 22.5 kg/m 2 in women with PCOS.
  2,220 186 -
Does endometrial injury enhances implantation in recurrent in-vitro fertilization failures? A prospective randomized control study from tertiary care center
Neeta Singh, Varnit Toshyan, Sunesh Kumar, Perumal Vanamail, Malti Madhu
October-December 2015, 8(4):218-223
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170401  PMID:26752857
Background: Though Assisted Reproductive Techniques have overcome many fertility disorders, implantation is still considered, the rate-limiting step for the success of IVF. Aim0 : The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of endometrial scratching in improving the implantation rate in patients undergoing IVF-ET cycles. Design: Prospective randomized control trial. Methods and Material: Sixty infertile women with a history of >1 previous failed IVF-ET cycles were randomizedinto two groups of 30 each. The patients in group 1 underwent endometrial scratching once between days 14-21 of menstrual cycle in the cycle prior to embryo transfer (ET), while in group 2scratching were not done. Implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, abortion rate and live birth rate were comparedbetween both groups. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were compared between two groups using Student's't' independent test. Frequency distributions of categorical variables were compared using Chi-Square/ Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Results: Implantation rate in group 1 was 19.4% whereas in group 2 it was 8.1%. Difference between two groups was statistically significant (P =0.028). The live birth rate was higher in the group 2 compared to group 1, however this difference was not statistically significant (3.3% vs 10%, P =0.612). No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the ongoing pregnancy rate (16.7% vs 0.0%; P =0.052), abortion rate (10.0% vs 3.3%, P =0.612) and miscarriage rate (6.7% vs 3.3%, P =0.99). Conclusions: Implantation rate increases significantly after endometrial scratching in patients with previous failed IVF-ET.
  2,256 136 -
Prevalence and role of antithrombin III, protein C and protein S deficiencies and activated protein C resistance in Kosovo women with recurrent pregnancy loss during the first trimester of pregnancy
Ymer Mekaj, Shefqet Lulaj, Fetie Daci, Naser Rafuna, Ermira Miftari, Hakif Hoxha, Xhemile Sllamniku, Agon Mekaj
October-December 2015, 8(4):224-229
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170407  PMID:26752858
Context: Several studies have reported that thrombophilia is responsible for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and role of inherited thrombophilia in early pregnancy loss, specifically in the first trimester. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 women (patients) with a history of two or more miscarriages during the first trimester of pregnancy and 110 women (controls) who had experienced two or more births without a miscarriage were included in this study. In both groups, we determined the biological activities of antithrombin III (ATIII) and protein C (PC) using the chromogenic method and the biological activity of protein S (PS) and the activated protein C resistance (APCR) were examined using a clotting method. Results: In the patient group, deficiencies of ATIII, PC, and PS were detected in 3 (2.88%), 4 (3.85%), and 6 (5.77%) cases, respectively. In the control group, ATIII (0%) deficiencies were not detected, and deficiencies for PC (0.9%) and PS (0.9%) were each detected in 1 patient. APCR was detected in 9 patients (8.65%) and 4 control subjects (3.63%). Conclusion: Based on our results, we can conclude that thrombophilia is a causal factor for miscarriages in the first trimester of pregnancy, although there are the conflicting data in the literature.
  2,080 215 -
Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome
Vineet V Mishra, Kumari Pritti, Rohina Aggarwal, Sumesh Choudhary
October-December 2015, 8(4):239-241
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170416  PMID:26751945
We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.
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Early onset ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome despite use of segmentation approach and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prophylaxis
Nalini Mahajan, Shalu Gupta, Shilpa Sharma, Kumkum Rani, Padmaja Naidu, Puneet R Arora
October-December 2015, 8(4):234-238
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170415  PMID:26752860
We report a case of early onset severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) presenting with oliguria in an antagonist cycle triggered with GnRH agonist and a freeze-all approach. Prophylactic measures in the form of GnRH antagonist, cabergolin and plasma expanders were given after oocyte retrieval. Twenty-four hours after oocyte retrieval patient developed oliguria and moderate ascites. She was managed in ICU with albumin and diuretics. She responded to conservative management and did not require paracentesis. Severe OHSS can occur in PCOS patients even after using a segmented approach i.e. GnRH agonist trigger with a 'freeze all' policy. Patients at risk of OHSS should be closely monitored following ovum pickup even when an agonist trigger has been given, for early detection and management.
  1,819 90 -
Novel FSH receptor mutation in a case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome with successful pregnancy outcome
Anahita R Chauhan, Madhva Prasad, Sumit Chamariya, Swati Achrekar, Smita D Mahale, Kartik Mittal
October-December 2015, 8(4):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170410  PMID:26752859
The objective is to study the FSH receptor (FSHR) for mutations in a case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS). This is a single case study and it examined patient who presented with spontaneous critical OHSS in early pregnancy and had successful good obstetric outcome. Intervention of this study was analysis of blood for genetic analysis of FSHR postdelivery. The main outcome measure noted was FSHR mutation. The study resulted in a novel, here though unreported, heterozygous mutation in FSHR gene at nucleotide position 1346 (AC 1346 T to AAT) in exon 10 yielding a threonine to asparagine (Thr 449 Asn) substitution in the transmembrane domain helix 3 of the FSHR. To conclude FSHR gene analysis can add to our understanding of sOHSS.
  1,793 101 -
From the Editor's desk
Madhuri Madhuri
October-December 2015, 8(4):189-190
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170366  PMID:26752852
  1,749 129 -
Follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is a credible marker of oocyte maturity and pregnancy outcome in conventional in vitro fertilization cycles
Natachandra M Chimote, Nirmalendu M Nath, Nishad N Chimote, Bindu N Chimote
October-December 2015, 8(4):209-213
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170397  PMID:26751787
Aim: To investigate if the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) in follicular fluid (FF) influences the competence of oocytes to fertilize, develop to the blastocyst stage, and produce a viable pregnancy in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of age-matched, nonpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing antagonist stimulation protocol involving conventional insemination and day 5 blastocyst transfer. Materials and Methods: FF levels of DHEA-s and E2 were measured by a radio-immuno-assay method using diagnostic kits. Fertilization rate, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rate were main outcome measures. Cycles were divided into pregnant/nonpregnant groups and also into low/medium/high FF DHEA-s groups. Statistical analysis was done by GraphPad Prism V software. Results: FF DHEA-s levels were significantly higher in pregnant (n = 111) compared to nonpregnant (n = 381) group (1599 ± 77.45 vs. 1372 ± 40.47 ng/ml; P = 0.01). High (n = 134) FF DHEA-s group had significantly higher percentage of metaphase II (MII) oocytes (91.5 vs. 85.54 vs. 79.44%, P < 0.0001), fertilization rate (78.86 vs. 74.16 vs. 71.26%, P < 0.0001), cleavage rate (83.67 vs. 69.1 vs. 66.17%, P = 0.0002), blastocyst formation rate (37.15 vs. 33.01 vs. 26.95%, P < 0.0001), and live birth rate (29.85 vs. 22.22 vs. 14.78%, P = 0.017) compared to medium (n = 243) and low (n = 115) FF DHEA-s groups, respectively despite comparable number of oocytes retrieved and number of blastocysts transferred. FF DHEA-s levels correlated significantly with the attainment of MII oocytes (Pearson r = 0.41) and fertilization rates (Pearson r = 0.35). Conclusion: FF DHEA-s level influences the oocyte maturation process and is predictive of fertilization, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rates in non-PCOS women undergoing conventional IVF cycles.
  1,702 90 -
Per-anal discharge: A new face of Dhat syndrome
Sujita Kumar Kar, Amit Singh
October-December 2015, 8(4):245-245
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170420  PMID:26752862
  1,232 65 -
Retraction: A rare cause for primary amenorrhea

October-December 2015, 8(4):247-247
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170422  PMID:26752864
  1,219 74 -
Dhat syndrome: Will it reach a height or die soon?
Sujita Kumar Kar
October-December 2015, 8(4):246-246
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.170421  PMID:26752863
  1,160 62 -
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