Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2015| April-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 12, 2015

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Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride
Sujita Kumar Kar, Ananya Choudhury, Abhishek Pratap Singh
April-June 2015, 8(2):70-74
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158594  PMID:26157296
Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications.
  8,196 277 -
Sperm function test
Pankaj Talwar, Suryakant Hayatnagarkar
April-June 2015, 8(2):61-69
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158588  PMID:26157295
With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization.
  5,674 463 -
Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells repair germinal cells of seminiferous tubules of busulfan-induced azoospermic rats
Davood Mehrabani, Mohammad Amin Hassanshahi, Amin Tamadon, Shahrokh Zare, Saeideh Keshavarz, Farhad Rahmanifar, Mehdi Dianatpour, Zahra Khodabandeh, ImanRazeghian Jahromi, Nader Tanideh, Mani Ramzi, Heydar Aqababa, Omid Kuhi-Hoseinabadi
April-June 2015, 8(2):103-110
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158618  PMID:26157302
Context: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are less invasive than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to obtain for cell therapy. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the germinal cells characteristics and repairs in seminiferous tubules of busulfan-induced azoospermic rats after AT-MSCs transplantation. Settings and Design: Experimental case-control study. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, donors AT-MSCs were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The recipients (n = 5) were received two doses of 10 mg/kg of busulfan with 21 days interval to stop endogenous spermatogenesis. After induction of azoospermia by busulfan, rats were injected with the AT-MSCs into the efferent duct of right testes. After 60 days, the right testes were injected AT-MSCs were compared to left azoospermic testes. Five untreated male rats served as negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Stereological indices were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD post-hoc test. The spermatogenesis index was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: After stereological analyses, the seminiferous tubules treated with AT-MSCs had normal morphology. The untreated seminiferous tubules were empty. Spermatogenesis was observed in most cell-treated seminiferous tubules. Conclusions: The testis of busulfan-induced azoospermic rats accepted transplanted AT-MSCs. The transplanted AT-MSCs could induce spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of the rat.
  3,554 188 -
Do increased levels of progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin affects pregnancy outcome in long agonist protocol in fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?
Neeta Singh, Simran Deep Kaur, Nisha Malik, Neena Malhotra, P Vanamail
April-June 2015, 8(2):80-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158606  PMID:26157298
Background: The effect of elevated levels of serum progesterone (P 4 ) and estradiol (E 2 ) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and their cut-off value on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes is still not clear. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the association between serum P 4 , E 2 and progesterone/estradiol ratio (P 4 /E 2 ) on pregnancy outcome in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with long agonist protocol. Setting and Design: Retrospective, single center, cohort study. Materials and Methods: A review of complete data of 544 women undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles (539 cycles) with long agonist protocol from January 2012 to February 2014 was done. Data were stratified into Three groups according to the number of oocytes retrieved: low (≤4 oocytes obtained), intermediate (5-19 oocytes obtained), and high ovarian response (≥20 oocytes obtained). Statistical Analysis: Fishers exact test/Chi-square was carried for comparing categorical data. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value for P 4 and P 4 /E 2 detrimental for pregnancy. Results: A negative association was observed between pregnancy rate (PR) and serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 levels with no effect on fertilization and cleavage rate. The overall cut-off value of serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 ratio detrimental for pregnancy was found to be 1.075 and ≥0.35, respectively. Different P 4 threshold according to the ovarian responders were calculated, 1.075 for intermediate and 1.275 for high responders. Serum E 2 levels were not found to be significantly associated with PR. Conclusion: Serum P 4 levels and P 4 /E 2 ratio are a significant predictor for pregnancy outcome without affecting cleavage and fertilization rate while serum estradiol levels do not seem to affect PR.
  3,498 168 -
Factors associated with nonresponse to ovulation induction using letrozole among women with World Health Organization group II anovulation
Thilina Sanjeewa Palihawadana, Prasantha Sudehana Wijesinghe, Harshalal Rukka Seneviratne
April-June 2015, 8(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158598  PMID:26157297
Context: Letrozole, a third generation aromatase inhibitor is gaining importance in ovulation induction. Some prefer to use it as a second line agent in women who fail to respond to clomifene citrate. However, our knowledge about the predictors of response to letrozole is limited. Aims: The study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with letrozole resistance among women with World Health Organization (WHO) group II anovulation. Subjects and Methods: Study was conducted at the infertility clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. A case-control study design was used and included 50 subjects with WHO group II anovulation (25 clomifene responsive and 25 clomifene resistant). After a treatment cycle of letrozole, the factors were compared between the subjects who responded and those who failed to respond to treatment. Results: Ovulation was achieved in 76% (n = 19) of subjects who had responded to clomifene previously and in 24% (n = 6) with clomifene resistance. The factors associated with letrozole resistance included the presence of hirsutism (odds ratio [OR]: 3.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-12.3) and clomifene resistance (OR: 10.03; 95% CI: 2.81-35.7). The early follicular phase mean (standard deviation) luteinizing hormone level was significantly higher among the nonresponders (9.75 [4.78] - 7.28 [2.3]; P = 0.02). Nonresponders showed significantly lower levels of oestradiol on the 5 th and 9 th days (28.50 [3.39] pg/mL vs. 7.49 [3.62] pg/mL; P = 0.0007 and 142.04 [76.22] pg/mL vs. 28.10 [12.8] pg/mL; P = 0.0001) of the menstrual cycle, respectively. Conclusions: The features associated with resistance to Letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg show some overlap with those associated with clomifene resistance. However, some features do not show similar association. The effectiveness of letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg in induction of ovulation among women with clomifene resistance is low and it does not seem to be a suitable treatment at a dose of 2.5 mg for this indication.
  3,002 147 -
Oocyte retrieval at 140-mmHg negative aspiration pressure: A promising alternative to flushing and aspiration in assisted reproduction in women with low ovarian reserve
Aswathy Kumaran, Pratap Kumar Narayan, Praveena Joglekar Pai, Amar Ramachandran, Basil Mathews, Satish Kumar Adiga
April-June 2015, 8(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158617  PMID:26157301
Background: Oocyte retrieval in women with low ovarian reserve is challenging and often results in poor pregnancy outcomes. Aim: The aim was to compare outcomes of oocyte retrieval using three aspiration methods in women with normal and low antral follicle counts (AFCs). Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Data from 172 women who underwent in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection over 3 years was studied after dividing into three groups: Group A (96) - normal AFC (≥10), direct oocyte retrieval at 120 mmHg, Group B (41) - low AFC (<10), direct retrieval at 140-mmHg, Group C (35) - low AFC, follicular flushing, and aspiration at 120-mmHg. In each group, oocyte yield, embryo quality, and pregnancy out comes were assessed. Results: The oocyte and embryo yield in Groups A and B were comparable (P > 0.05) but were significantly less in Group C (P < 0.05). The pregnancy rates in Groups A and B were similar (35.4%, 39%) but were significantly less (17.1%) in Group C (P < 0.05). The live birth rate was 76% in Group A, 69% in Group B, and 50% in Group C. The miscarriage rates in the three groups were 21%, 31%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: Direct oocyte retrieval with 140-mmHg showed significantly better oocyte yield and pregnancy outcomes compared to flushing and aspiration in women with low AFC.
  2,881 154 -
Novel balanced chromosomal translocations in females with recurrent spontaneous abortions: Two case studies
Puspal De, Sudipa Chakravarty, Amit Chakravarty
April-June 2015, 8(2):114-117
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158623  PMID:26157304
Two couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy losses were referred to the Institute of Genetic Medicine and Genomic Science for cytogenetic evaluation. Chromosomal analysis of the phenotypically normal couples was done to investigate whether there are any new chromosomal abnormalities present in either of the couples caused recurrent pregnancy losses. Clinical and hormonal profile of the couples revealed normal parameters. The ultrasound scan of the females showed normal uterine and ovarian structures. Chromosomal analysis of the couples revealed normal 46, XY karyotypes in the both the male partners, and novel balanced reciprocal translocations 46, XX, t (5;8) (q35.3;q24.23) and 46, XX, t (4;13) (q12;q14) chromosomal constitutions in the female partners. Further, corroboration of the chromosome abnormalities was carried out by high resolution banding analysis. Unique and novel balanced reciprocal translocations were reported as an original investigation in two female partners from two different unrelated families both with the history of recurrent pregnancy losses.
  2,856 140 -
Impact of different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols on the physical and psychological burdens in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection
Deenadayal Mamata, Subrat K Ray, Kumar Pratap, Parikh Firuza, Ashish Ramesh Birla, Banker Manish
April-June 2015, 8(2):86-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158615  PMID:26157299
Context: Infertility treatment involves a considerable amount of physical and psychological burden which may impact the outcome. Aim: The objective was to understand the amount of physical and psychological burden in women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Setting and Design: Multi-center, prospective, parallel, observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted across 12 IVF centers in India. A total of 692 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation as a part of the first cycle IVF/ICSI completed the trial. Women were recruited in 2 groups based on type of treatment (Group A - gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] antagonist; Group B - GnRH agonist) and were asked to fill questionnaires during the 2 treatment visits. Results: The mean changes between Visit 1 (baseline) and Visit 2 in anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) scores in Group A for anxiety and depression were −0.5 (3.67), −0.1 (3.57) respectively and for Group B were −0.4 (3.68), 0.1 (3.67) respectively, which was not statistically significant. In Group A, the mean (±standard deviation [SD]) Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL) score was 17.9 (±5.17) in visit 1 and 19.1 (±5.45) Visit 2. The change between visits was 1.1 (P < 0.0001) with higher score reflecting higher somatic distress symptoms. In Group B, the mean (±SD) HSCL score was 18.2 (±5.19) in Visit 1 and 18.8 (±5.23) in visit 2. The change between visits was 0.6 (P < 0.0014). The difference of the mean change in physical burden between Group A and Group B was not statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant impact in both treatment protocols with respect to the physical burden was found between Visit 1 and Visit 2 but no difference in physical or psychological burden between the two treatment groups was observed.
  2,819 128 -
Hematocrit as a simple method to predict and manage ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproduction
Taswin Kaur, Praveena Pai, Pratap Kumar
April-June 2015, 8(2):93-97
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158616  PMID:26157300
Aim: The aim was to analyze the hematocrit levels in cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), syndrome occurring during in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and study its role as a prognostic indicator. Subjects and Methods: Two years data of 66 women at high risk for developing OHSS was analyzed. Twenty-seven women who developed OHSS were further analyzed based on their hematocrit levels on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU) and the day of embryo transfer (ET) to see if there was a prognostic trend. Results: Of the total 225 IVF cases, 66 were deemed high risk for developing OHSS. Twenty-seven of these developed OHSS (40.9%). Of these 27, 21 (77.8%) had a hematocrit >35% on the day of OPU. The mean hematocrit in women developing OHSS on the day of OPU was 37.39% (standard deviation [SD] 2.66) as against 35.97% (2.80) in those not developing OHSS. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.043). On the day of ET, 23/27 (85.8%) who developed OHSS had a hematocrit of >35%. The mean hematocrit was 39.29% (SD 3.85) in those who developed OHSS as against 34.7% (2.88) in those who did not. This difference (4.85) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Women undergoing IVF were at a higher risk of developing OHSS when their hematocrit on the day of OPU and ET was >35%. Those who required cancellation of ET had a hematocrit of >35% on the day of ET or showed a significant increase of 3% from OPU to ET.
  2,682 125 -
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder caused by antiepileptic drugs
M Singh, Manish Bathla, A Martin, J Aneja
April-June 2015, 8(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158619  PMID:26157303
Female sexual dysfunction is common but poorly understood sexual problem in women. Sexual dysfunction in female is multi-factorial in origin and also observed with intake of drug acting on central nervous system. This case report describes a female epileptic patient who developed sexual dysfunction with intake of antiepileptic drugs.
  2,611 128 -
From the Editor's desk
Madhuri Patil
April-June 2015, 8(2):59-60
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.158582  PMID:26157294
  2,146 90 -
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