Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2009| July-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 24, 2009

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Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats
DMAB Dissanayake, PS Wijesinghe, WD Ratnasooriya, S Wimalasena
July-December 2009, 2(2):57-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57223  PMID:19881149
Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P< 0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28) vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17), P< 0.05, compared to controls. The same group had elevated prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) levels compared to controls at the end of treatment period; PRL- 7.22 ng/dl (SEM 3.68) vs. 2.90 ng/dl (SEM 0.34) and T- 8.21 ng/ml (SEM 6.09) vs. 2.39 ng/ml (SEM 1.79), P< 0.05. In contrast, reduction of libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant ( P> 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.
  11,242 327 4
Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats
Ghasem Saki, Fakher Rahim, Karim Alizadeh
July-December 2009, 2(2):72-75
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57226  PMID:19881152
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32°C daily for 50 days. Then, all male rats were sacrificed, the right epididymides were removed and sperm concentration and motility were determined. The sperm suspension was added to the ova. Fertilization capacity was assessed by counting two-cell embryos 24-26 h after completion of fertilization in vitro. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of sperm concentration in the control and experimental groups were 60.8 ± 9.3 10 6 /ml and 20.4 ± 5.3 10 6 /ml, respectively. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the two groups in terms of sperm concentration. The percentage of motility in the experimental group was significantly different ( P < 0.05). The same results were obtained in case of fertility ( P < 0.05). Stress caused by forced swimming was observed by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that forced swimming stress in time course equal or more than spermatogenesis period, i.e. 48-50 days in the rat will be significantly effective to reduce the number and motility of sperms as well as the fertilization capacity.
  6,597 695 17
Uterus didelphys with unilateral obstructed hemivagina with hematometrocolpos and hematosalpinx with ipsilateral renal agenesis
Gaurav Jindal, Satish Kachhawa, GL Meena, Gopal Dhakar
July-December 2009, 2(2):87-89
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57230  PMID:19881156
Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly. It mostly presents with severe dysmenorrhea and a palpable mass due to unilateral hematocolpos. A patient with dysmenorrhea from a double uterus and an obstructed hemivagina is a diagnostic dilemma because the menses are regular. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with this condition who was diagnosed as uterus didelphys with unilateral hematocolpos and hydrosalpinx with ipsilateral renal agenesis on the basis of sonography and confirmed by laparoscopic examination.
  5,343 429 12
Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa
Amrit Kaur Bansal, Anand Ravinder Jit Kaur
July-December 2009, 2(2):76-80
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57227  PMID:19881153
Aims: In this study, the effects of 0.1 mM Mn 2+ on thiol components (total thiols [TSH], glutathione reduced [GSH], glutathione oxidized [GSSG] and redox ratio [GSH/ GSSG]) have been determined in human spermatozoa. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were healthy males having more than 75% motility and 80 x 10 6 sperms/mL. Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.2) and this suspension was divided into eight equal fractions. All fractions, control (containing PBS) and experimental (treated/untreated with [ferrous ascorbate, FeAA - 200 FeSO 4 μM, 1000 μM ascorbic acid, nicotine (0.5 mM) and FeAA + nicotine], supplemented/unsupplemented with Mn 2+ [0.1 mM]), were incubated for 2 h at 378C. These fractions were assessed for determining the thiol components. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed by Students " t" test. Results and Conclusions: Ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and ferrous ascorbate + nicotine induced oxidative stress and decreased GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) but increased the TSH and GSSG levels. Mn 2+ supplementation improved TSH, GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG) but decreased the GSSG level under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Thiol groups serve as defense mechanisms of sperm cells to fight against oxidative stress induced by stress inducers such as ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and their combination (ferrous ascorbate + nicotine). In addition, Mn 2+ supplementation maintains the thiol level by reducing oxidative stress.
  5,183 245 8
Successful pregnancies and a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in globozoospermia
Manish R Banker, Pravin M Patel, Bharat V Joshi, Preeti B Shah, Rakhi Goyal
July-December 2009, 2(2):81-82
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57228  PMID:19881154
Globozoospermia is a severe form of teratozoospermia characterized by round-headed acrosomeless spermatozoa. Here we present two successful pregnancies and a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
  4,640 217 20
Antral follicle size in the downregulated cycle and its relation to in vitro fertilization outcome
Nabaneeta Padhy, M Latha, B Sathya, Thangam R Varma
July-December 2009, 2(2):68-71
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57225  PMID:19881151
Aim: In this study, we have attempted to relate the antral follicle size on day 3 of downregulation to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome and hence test its predictive value for IVF outcome. Settings and Design: Teaching hospital, prospective double-blinded cohort study. The sonographer was blinded toward the patient profile whereas the follicular size on day 3 was concealed from the clinicians. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-eight patients undergoing the long protocol programme for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection at the Institution are included in this study. The antral follicle size on day 3 of the downregulated cycle was measured for all patients and, based on the size, they were divided into three groups: Group I (0-3 mm), Group II (3-6 mm), and Group III (6-9 mm), Various outcome measures taken into account were amount and number of days of gonadotropin required, basal estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level, zooming of follicles, and quality of oocytes. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Graphpad software with a microsoft excel spread sheet. A P-value <0.05 (Fisher exact test) was taken to be significant. Multinomial regression tests were used as appropriate. Results: A significant number of follicles were in the 3-6 mm group whereas the population below 35 years constituted the majority. There was no significant difference in basal estradiol and FSH levels among the three groups. Accelerated growth of follicles (zooming) was significantly associated with bigger antral follicles ( P< 0.001) whereas poor quality oocytes were significantly higher in Group 1. Conclusion: The significant number of poor quality of oocytes produced by such follicles whereas zooming of follicles among the bigger antral follicle group suggest their accelerated development potential and hence the dose of gonadotropin should be adjusted accordingly, indicating evidence of intrinsic abnormality of folliculogenesis in very small follicles.
  3,825 288 4
Case report of a primary ovarian pregnancy in a primigravida
Subrat Panda, Laleng M Darlong, Santa Singh, Tulon Borah
July-December 2009, 2(2):90-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57231  PMID:19881157
Primary ovarian pregnancy occurs quite rarely and that too usually in young highly fertile multiparous women using intra uterine device. We present a case where a young primigravida presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed as ectopic pregnancy and was confirmed intra-operatively and histopathologically as primary ovarian pregnancy, managed with partial ovariectomy.
  3,894 218 9
Pre-hCG 3D and 3D power Doppler assessment of the follicle for improving pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination cycles
Sonal Panchal, CB Nagori
July-December 2009, 2(2):62-67
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57224  PMID:19881150
Background: The assessment of follicular maturity at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the key factors for the success of all assisted reproductive techniques. Aim: To assess follicles by three dimensional (3D) and 3D power Doppler (PD) before giving hCG to improve pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Design: Prospective randomized study. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound for pre-hCG follicular assessment was performed over a period of 10 months for all 1000 cycles of IUI. Follicular assessment was performed using a transvaginal multifrequency volume probe. Follicles considered mature by 2D US and color Doppler were assessed by 3D and 3D PD. These values were independently evaluated for the conception and the non-conception groups. Results: Conception rates were 32.3 and 27% respectively and individually when the perifollicular resistance index was < 0.50 and the peak systolic velocity was > 11 cm/s 10-12 h before hCG. Conception rates of 32% were achieved with a follicular volume between 3 and 7 cc. The conception rate was 32.3% in the cumulus group. A perifollicular vascularity index of between six and 20 gave conception rates of 35% and perifollicular flow index of 27-43 gave conception rates of 33%. Conclusions: 3D ultrasound is much more accurate for volume assessment of the follicle. Presence of cumulus increases the surety of the presence of a mature ovum in the follicle. 3D and 3D PD when used with 2D US and color Doppler for pre-hCG follicular assessment would definitely improve pregnancy rates in IUI cycles.
  3,576 254 2
Isolated bilateral pleural effusion as the sole manifestation of late onset ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Shalu Gupta, Balasubramaniam Sathya, Nabaneeta Padhy, Shankar Kundavi, Betty E Thomas, Thangam R Varma
July-December 2009, 2(2):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57229  PMID:19881155
To report a case of late onset ovarian hyperstimulation with bilateral pleural effusion and respiratory distress as the sole manifestation after embryo transfer.
  3,140 153 1
A386G polymorphism of the DAZL gene is not associated with idiopathic male infertility in North India
Kiran Singh, Rajiva Raman
July-December 2009, 2(2):54-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57222  PMID:19881148
Background: Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder which affects approximately 10% of couples at childbearing age with substantial clinical and social impact. Genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to susceptibility to spermatogenic impairment in humans. The A386G (T54A) polymorphism of the autosomal gene, DAZL, has shown susceptibility to spermatogenic failure in Taiwanese population. However, no such association has been seen in infertile patients from Italy and South India. Aim: This study aims to find out the possible association between A386G (T54A) polymorphism of the autosomal gene, DAZL and idiopathic male infertility in patients from North India. DESIGN: Case-control study. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of A386G (T54A) polymorphism was determined in 165 idiopathic infertile azoo-/oligospermic patients and 200 fertile healthy control men. PCR-RFLP analysis was employed to determine the genotypes. PCR amplicons were subjected to restriction digestion with AluI as this mutation created a restriction site (AGCT), and separated on a 12% polyacrylamide gel. Results: Analysis of 165 idiopathic infertile azoo-/oligospermic and 200 fertile control men revealed only one case of the variant as a heterozygote in the control population. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) was absent in the infertile patients. Conclusion: As in the report from Italy and South India, our results illustrate the rarity of this mutation. Apparently, this mutation is of recent origin and/or has poor selective value. Its preponderance in infertile patients from Taiwan (all heterozygotes) suggests a founder effect and also that its low selective value could be due to impaired spermatogenesis.
  3,016 273 2
From the Editor's Desk
Kamini A Rao
July-December 2009, 2(2):53-53
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57221  PMID:19881147
  2,360 189 -
Four lab tests to predict intrauterine insemination outcome
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-December 2009, 2(2):93-93
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57232  PMID:19881159
  1,596 156 -
Polyorchidism: An incidental finding
Jyotsna Sen, Shalini Agarwal, Satish Prakash
July-December 2009, 2(2):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57233  PMID:19881158
  1,581 113 -
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