Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study
Sachin A Narvekar, Neelima Gupta, Nivedita Shetty, Anu Kottur, MS Srinivas, Kamini A Rao
January-April 2010, 3(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.63116  PMID:20607003
Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04). The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01). The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04). Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.
  43 9,848 494
CASE REPORTS
Successful pregnancies and a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in globozoospermia
Manish R Banker, Pravin M Patel, Bharat V Joshi, Preeti B Shah, Rakhi Goyal
July-December 2009, 2(2):81-82
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57228  PMID:19881154
Globozoospermia is a severe form of teratozoospermia characterized by round-headed acrosomeless spermatozoa. Here we present two successful pregnancies and a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
  20 4,330 217
Endometrial regeneration using autologous adult stem cells followed by conception by in vitro fertilization in a patient of severe Asherman's syndrome
Chaitanya B Nagori, Sonal Y Panchal, Himanshu Patel
January-April 2011, 4(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82360  PMID:21772740
In a woman with severe Asherman's syndrome, curettage followed by placement of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) (IUCD with cyclical hormonal therapy) was tried for 6 months, for development of the endometrium. When this failed, autologous stem cells were tried as an alternative therapy. From adult autologous stem cells isolated from patient's own bone marrow, endometrial angiogenic stem cells were separated using immunomagnetic isolation. These cells were placed in the endometrial cavity under ultrasound guidance after curettage. Patient was then given cyclical hormonal therapy. Endometrium was assessed intermittently on ultrasound. On development of endometrium with a thickness of 8 mm and good vascularity, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer was done. This resulted in positive biochemical pregnancy followed by confirmation of gestational sac, yolk sac, and embryonic pole with cardiac activity on ultrasound. Endometrial angiogenic stem cells isolated from autologous adult stem cells could regenerate injured endometrium not responding to conventional treatment for Asherman's syndrome.
  18 9,194 422
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats
Ghasem Saki, Fakher Rahim, Karim Alizadeh
July-December 2009, 2(2):72-75
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57226  PMID:19881152
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32°C daily for 50 days. Then, all male rats were sacrificed, the right epididymides were removed and sperm concentration and motility were determined. The sperm suspension was added to the ova. Fertilization capacity was assessed by counting two-cell embryos 24-26 h after completion of fertilization in vitro. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of sperm concentration in the control and experimental groups were 60.8 ± 9.3 10 6 /ml and 20.4 ± 5.3 10 6 /ml, respectively. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the two groups in terms of sperm concentration. The percentage of motility in the experimental group was significantly different ( P < 0.05). The same results were obtained in case of fertility ( P < 0.05). Stress caused by forced swimming was observed by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that forced swimming stress in time course equal or more than spermatogenesis period, i.e. 48-50 days in the rat will be significantly effective to reduce the number and motility of sperms as well as the fertilization capacity.
  17 6,327 694
REVIEW ARTICLES
The impact of female obesity on the outcome of fertility treatment
Shilpi Pandey, Suruchi Pandey, Abha Maheshwari, Siladitya Bhattacharya
May-August 2010, 3(2):62-67
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.69332  PMID:21209748
The rising prevalence of obesity has had a profound impact on female reproductive health. Increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with ovulatory subfertility and anovulatory infertility. Overweight and obese women have poorer outcomes following fertility treatment. They respond poorly to clomiphene induction of ovulation and require higher doses of gonadotrophins for ovulation induction and superovulation. Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction produces fewer follicles resulting in the harvest of fewer oocytes. Fertilization rates are poorer and the embryo quality is impaired in younger women who are obese. Pregnancy rate in some studies is lower and there is an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. Weight loss regularizes menstrual cycles and increases the chance of spontaneous ovulation and conception in anovulatory overweight and obese women. Gradual sustained weight loss is beneficial whereas crash dieting is detrimental.
  16 10,441 673
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality in a subfertile population
DMAB Dissanayake, PS Wijesinghe, WD Ratnasooriya, S Wimalasena
September-December 2010, 3(3):124-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.74153  PMID:21234172
Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C) and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T). Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson's correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. Results : Zn-C was low in 23 (15%) samples, while in 32 (21%) of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05) for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001) for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 μg/mL (83.92) vs. 110.69 11 μg/mL (54.59) (P < 0.05). Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 μg (144.09) vs. 336.34 μg (236.33) (P < 0.05). Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 μg (283.88) vs. 305.15 μg (221.19) (P < 0.05). Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = -0.193, P < 0.05) as well as Zn-T (r = -0.280, P < 0.01). On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05). Conclusion : Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are affected by variations of seminal plasma zinc. Seminal plasma Zn-T is the better marker for assessing the relationship between zinc and semen quality.
  15 5,383 291
Predictive value of endometrial thickness, pattern and sub-endometrial blood flows on the day of hCG by 2D doppler in in-vitro fertilization cycles: A prospective clinical study from a tertiary care unit
Neeta Singh, Anupama Bahadur, Suneeta Mittal, Neena Malhotra, Ashok Bhatt
January-April 2011, 4(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82357  PMID:21772737
Aims and Objectives : To evaluate the role of endometrial thickness, pattern and sub-endometrial blood flows measured by 2D power Doppler ultrasound to predict pregnancy during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Study Design : Prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective observational study. A total of 101 infertile women were recruited from our IVF-ET program from January to December, 2009. Women with tubal factor, male factor and unexplained infertility were included in the study. Results : The mean age was 35 years and mean duration of infertility was 8 years. Seventy five (74.25%) patients had primary infertility and 26 (25.74%) had secondary infertility. The mean endometrial thickness was 8.1 mm and endometrial blood flow was in Zone I in 18 patients, 28 patients had blood flow in Zone II and 54 had in Zone III. Overall, 27 (26.73%) patients conceived and in these women the endometrial thickness was between 6 and 12 mm. Conclusions : With a thin endometrium (≤7 mm) and no-triple-line endometrial pattern coexisting in an in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) candidate, cryopreservation should be recommended. With a thin endometrium and a good texture (triple-line), other prognostic factors, such as embryo quality, should be taken into account. The endometrial vascularity has a useful predictive value on the implantation rate in IVF cycles irrespective of the morphological appearance of the endometrium. However, further study is needed to make a definitive conclusion.
  15 18,517 454
REVIEW ARTICLE
Fertility preservation in young cancer patients
Ariel Revel, Shoshana Revel-Vilk
January-April 2010, 3(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.63113  PMID:20607000
As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.
  15 5,973 533
CASE REPORTS
Successful pregnancy following medical management of heterotopic pregnancy
R Lavanya, K Deepika, Madhuri Patil
January-June 2009, 2(1):35-40
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51350  PMID:19562073
We present a case of sonographic demonstration of quadruplet heterotopic pregnancy consisting of twin intrauterine (IU) pregnancy and a twin adnexal pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI) with clomiphene citrate (CC) and timed intercourse (TI). Both heterotopic pregnancy and spontaneous twinning are frequent after OI, this combination although extremely rare must be kept in mind. The role of early transvaginal sonography and serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin after missed periods helps in early diagnosis. It gives us an opportunity for medical management, saving the patient the agony of surgery along with loss of pregnancy. The management of heterotopic pregnancy is controversial. This patient did not have a viable IU pregnancy and both the sacs in the adnexa were small. Thus, we treated her successfully by medical management with systemic methotrexate, with regular follow-up. This patient successfully conceived after 6 months with OI and TI, with ovulation occurring from the same side of the previous ectopic. She had a viable IU gestation corresponding to 12 weeks.
  14 7,045 300
REVIEW ARTICLE
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Pratap Kumar, Sameer Farouk Sait, Alok Sharma, Mukesh Kumar
May-August 2011, 4(2):70-75
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.86080  PMID:22065820
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication of assisted reproduction technology. The syndrome is characterized by cystic enlargement of the ovaries and a fluid shift from the intravascular to the third space due to increased capillary permeability and ovarian neoangiogenesis. Its occurrence is dependent on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). β-hCG and its analogs, estrogen, estradiol, prolactin, histamine and prostaglandins have all been implicated in OHSS but now it is increasingly better understood that the vasoactivesubstances such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α, endothelin-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by the ovaries have been implicated in increasing vascular permeability. Enlargement of the ovaries causes abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Leakage of fluid from follicles, increased capillary permeability leading to third spacing (due to the release of vasoactive substances), or frank rupture of follicles can all cause ascites. Due to leakage of fluid through the impaired blood vessels both within and outside the ovary there is massive fluid-shift from the intra-vescular bed to the third compartment results in intravascular hypovolemia with concomitant development of edema, ascites, hydrothorax and/or hydropericardium. Low-dose gonadotrophin protocols have been implemented to reduce the risks of fertility treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Prophylactic albumin administration may interrupt the development of OHSS by increasing the plasma oncotic pressure and binding mediators of ovarian origin. OHSS is significantly lower in an antagonist protocol than in an agonist protocol. Cabergoline inhibits partially the VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation levels and associated vascular permeability without affecting luteal angiogenesis reduces the 'early' (within the first 9 days after hCG) onset of OHSS. To prevent thrombosis, subcutaneous heparin 5000-7500 U/d is begun on the first day of admission. These patients need a hospital ward where the clinical picture is well understood and the personnel have expertise in its treatment and follow-up. Admission to an intensive care unit is necessary when critical OHSS develops.
  14 7,092 384
REVIEW ARTICLES
An overview of randomization techniques: An unbiased assessment of outcome in clinical research
KP Suresh
January-April 2011, 4(1):8-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82352  PMID:21772732
Randomization as a method of experimental control has been extensively used in human clinical trials and other biological experiments. It prevents the selection bias and insures against the accidental bias. It produces the comparable groups and eliminates the source of bias in treatment assignments. Finally, it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood of chance as a source for the difference of end outcome. This paper discusses the different methods of randomization and use of online statistical computing web programming (www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs or www.randomization.com) to generate the randomization schedule. Issues related to randomization are also discussed in this paper.
  14 19,360 688
CASE REPORTS
Endometrial osseous metaplasia: Clinicopathological study of a case and literature review
T Umashankar, Shobhana Patted, RS Handigund
May-August 2010, 3(2):102-104
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.69329  PMID:21209755
Endometrial osseous metaplasia is an uncommon clinical entity with the presence of bone in the endometrium. Most of the cases clinically present with secondary infertility following an abortion. Various theories have been proposed and the most accepted theory is metaplasia of the stromal cells into osteoblastic cells that produce the bone. It is important to distinguish this condition from the mixed mullerian tumor of the endometrium to avoid hysterectomy. Removal of these bony bits leads to spontaneous conception. We present one such case in a 25-year-old female patient presented with secondary infertility.
  13 4,480 167
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Predictive factors for pregnancy after intrauterine insemination: A prospective study of factors affecting outcome
Mohan S Kamath, Priya Bhave, TK Aleyamma, Raju Nair, A Chandy, Ann M Mangalaraj, K Muthukumar, Korula George
September-December 2010, 3(3):129-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.74154  PMID:21234173
Objective : To determine the predictive factors for pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH)/intrauterine insemination (IUI). Design : Prospective observational study. Setting : University-level tertiary care center. Patients and Methods : 366 patients undergoing 480 stimulated IUI cycles between November 2007 and December 2008. Interventions : Ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins was initiated and a single IUI was performed 36 h after triggering ovulation. Main Outcome Measures : The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Predictive factors evaluated were female age, duration of infertility, indication for IUI, number of preovulatory follicles, luteinizing hormone level on day of trigger and postwash total motile fraction (TMF). Results : The overall clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were 8.75% and 5.83%, respectively. Among the predictive factors evaluated, the duration of infertility (5.36 vs. 6.71 years, P = 0.032) and the TMF (between 10 and 20 million, P = 0.002) significantly influenced the clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusion : Our results indicate that COH/IUI is not an effective option in couples with infertility due to a male factor. Prolonged duration of infertility is also associated with decreased success, and should be considered when planning treatment.
  13 6,043 409
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research studies
KP Suresh, S Chandrashekara
January-April 2012, 5(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.97779  PMID:22870008
Determining the optimal sample size for a study assures an adequate power to detect statistical significance. Hence, it is a critical step in the design of a planned research protocol. Using too many participants in a study is expensive and exposes more number of subjects to procedure. Similarly, if study is underpowered, it will be statistically inconclusive and may make the whole protocol a failure. This paper covers the essentials in calculating power and sample size for a variety of applied study designs. Sample size computation for single group mean, survey type of studies, 2 group studies based on means and proportions or rates, correlation studies and for case-control for assessing the categorical outcome are presented in detail.
  13 17,364 1,136
CASE REPORTS
Uterus didelphys with unilateral obstructed hemivagina with hematometrocolpos and hematosalpinx with ipsilateral renal agenesis
Gaurav Jindal, Satish Kachhawa, GL Meena, Gopal Dhakar
July-December 2009, 2(2):87-89
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57230  PMID:19881156
Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly. It mostly presents with severe dysmenorrhea and a palpable mass due to unilateral hematocolpos. A patient with dysmenorrhea from a double uterus and an obstructed hemivagina is a diagnostic dilemma because the menses are regular. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with this condition who was diagnosed as uterus didelphys with unilateral hematocolpos and hydrosalpinx with ipsilateral renal agenesis on the basis of sonography and confirmed by laparoscopic examination.
  12 5,072 426
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Polycystic ovaries and infertility: Our experience
Lavanya Rajashekar, Deepika Krishna, Madhuri Patil
July-December 2008, 1(2):65-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.44113  PMID:19562048
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common (15-20%) endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. Although it is a major cause of infertility, its etiology remains unknown and its treatment difficult. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with PCOS. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: PCOS patients (914 of the 1057) attending the outpatient department (OPD) from June 2003 to February 2008 were evaluated for this study. Of the 914 patients investigated, 814 came for treatment and these patients were studied for hormonal disturbances and their response to various modalities of treatment. Results: Of the 2270 infertility patients, 46.50% (1057) had PCOS, out of these, 86.47% (914) were investigated and 77% (814) came for treatment. Our overall pregnancy rate was 48.40% (394/814). The pregnancy rate per cycle with timed intercourse (TI) was 44.77% (47/105), 17.09% (286/1673) with intrauterine insemination (IUI), 29.82% (51/171) with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 22.22% (10/45) with frozen embryo transfer (FET). The maximum number of pregnancies (85.29%, 284/333) were achieved in the first three treatment cycles. The abortion rate was 19.01% (73/384) and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 5.47% (21/384). Complications seen were in the form of ovarian hyperstimulation (OHSS), retention cyst on day two and multiple pregnancies in 11.71% (228/1946) of the total treatment cycles. Conclusion: Most PCOS symptoms could be adequately controlled or eliminated with proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, ovulation induction (OI) protocols and treatment modalities must be balanced for optimal results.
  12 7,392 803
A meta-analysis of the relationship between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization cycles
Mazdak Momeni, Mohammad H Rahbar, Ertug Kovanci
September-December 2011, 4(3):130-137
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.92287  PMID:22346080
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization cycles. Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: We identified 484 articles using Cochrane library, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase searches with various key words including endometrial thickness, pregnancy, assisted reproductive technology, endometrial pattern, and in vitro fertilization. A total of 14 studies with data on endometrial thickness and outcome were selected, representing 4922 cycles (2204 pregnant and 2718 nonpregnant). The meta-analysis with a random effects model was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. We calculated the standardized mean difference, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: There was a significant difference in the mean endometrial thickness between pregnant and nonpregnant groups (P<0.001), with a standardized mean difference of 0.4 mm (95% CI 0.22-0.58). The OR for pregnancy was 1.40 (95% CI 1.24-1.58). Conclusions: The mean endometrial thickness was significantly higher in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant. The mean difference between two groups was <1 mm which may not be clinically meaningful. Although there may be a relationship between endometrial thickness and pregnancy, implantation potential is probably more complex than a single ultrasound measurement can determine.
  11 4,593 253
Outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques
A Baxi, M Kaushal
January-June 2008, 1(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.39593  PMID:19562060
Context : There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. Aims: To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. Settings and Design : Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods :In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A) with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B). The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. Statistical Analysis : The continuous variables were analyzed by Student's t -test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. Results : Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001). Conclusions : Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins.
  10 7,300 453
Effect of bromocriptine on the severity of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and outcome in high responders undergoing assisted reproduction
Vinita Sherwal, Sonia Malik, Vandana Bhatia
May-August 2010, 3(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.69342  PMID:21209752
Context: Ever since ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was recognized as a clinical entity, various treatment modalities have been tried to prevent its occurrence and reduce its severity. Many recent studies have evaluated the role of dopamine agonists in reducing the incidence of OHSS. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of dopamine agonist bromocriptine in reducing the incidence and severity of OHSS in patients undergoing assisted reproduction and its effect on pregnancy rates. Settings and Design: It was a prospective study in which patients at high risk of developing OHSS undergoing assisted reproduction were recruited. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out from August 2008 to August 2009 in patients undergoing assisted reproduction and included 40 patients at high risk for developing OHSS. Tablet bromocriptine 2.5 mg was prescribed for a period of 16 days starting from day of ovum pick up. Patients were analyzed on the basis of incidence of moderate and severe OHSS, timing of onset of OHSS (early/late), hospitalization rate, pregnancy rates and tolerability of medication and were compared with a historical group of high responders matched for age and BMI. Statistical Analysis: Student's t test and proportion test were used. Results: There was a significant reduction in the incidence of moderate OHSS (P=0.037), early OHSS (P=0.012) as well as the number of admissions (P=0.030). Average duration of hospitalization was also significantly reduced (P=0.036). In the study group, the incidence of clinically significant OHSS was 17.5% as compared to 40.9% in the control group. No difference was detected between the groups in clinical pregnancy rates (P=0.0054). Conclusion: Bromocriptine reduced the incidence and severity of clinically significant OHSS in high risk patients without affecting the pregnancy rates.
  10 4,864 177
Demographic characteristics and clinical profile of poor responders in IVF / ICSI: A comparative study
Nabaneeta Padhy, Shalu Gupta, Asmita Mahla, M Latha, Thangam Varma
May-August 2010, 3(2):91-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.69343  PMID:21209753
Background: Ovarian response varies considerably among individuals and depends on various factors. Poor response in IVF yields lesser oocytes and is associated with poorer pregnancy perspective. Cycle cancellation due to poor response is frustrating for both clinician and the patient. Studies have shown that women conceiving after poor ovarian response have more pregnancy complications like PIH and preeclampsia than women with normal ovarian response. In addition, poor ovarian response could be a predictor of early menopause. This paper studies various demographic and clinical profiles of poor responders and tries to look at the known and unknown factors which could contribute to poor ovarian response in IVF. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 104 poor responders who had less than four oocytes at retrieval and compared with 324 good responders for factors like age, BMI, type of sub fertility, duration of sub fertility, environmental factors like stress at work, smoking, pelvic surgery, chronic medical disorder, indication of IVF, basal FSH, mean age of menopause in their mothers etc. Results: Among the poor responders, 60.57% were above 35 years of age compared to 36.41% in control group, which is statistically significant. Mean age of menopause in mother was found to be four years earlier in poor responder group. Male factor and unexplained infertility were significantly (P<0.05) higher in good responders (P<0.05). Significant proportion (31.73%) of women in study group had undergone some pelvic surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion: Apart from age, prior pelvic surgery also could be used as predictors for poor ovarian response. Heredity also plays a major role in determining ovarian response.
  10 4,624 224
Role of 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene in recurrent spontaneous abortion patients
U Shankarkumar, A Shankarkumar, Z Chedda, K Ghosh
September-December 2011, 4(3):143-146
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.92289  PMID:22346082
Background: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G belongs to the nonclassical Class I major histocompatibility complex, and is predominantly and specifically found on the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of the placenta. HLA-G has been postulated as an important immunotolerant molecule in maintaining successful pregnancy and maternal tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. Recent reports indicate that the 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism in exon 8 of the 3′UTR region of the HLA-G gene influences the HLA-G mRNA stability and isoform splicing patterns, thus modulating the levels of HLA-G expression. Aim: The aim was to study the 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism in exon 8 of the 3′UTR region of the HLA-G gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 women with unexplained three or more recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs) and 41 normal healthy control women who have had normal pregnancies and were genotyped for the 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism were genotyped for the 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction for exon 8-specific primers Results: It was found that the 14-bp allele deletion frequency was lower in patients (67%) versus controls (73%), while 14-bp allele insertion was higher among patients (33%) versus controls (9%). Similarly, the homozygous deletion halotype was higher among the controls (80.48%); the heterozygous insertion deletion haplotype (34%) and homozygous insertion haplotype (16%) were higher in RSA patients. The HLA haplotype HLA A*02:11_B*40:06:01:01 was increased among RSA women compared to controls. Conclusion: Our results suggest that 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphisms might have importance in the outcome of pregnancy and the 14-bp deletion polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene may be important from an evolutionary perspective of successful pregnancy.
  10 2,844 177
CASE REPORTS
Case report of a primary ovarian pregnancy in a primigravida
Subrat Panda, Laleng M Darlong, Santa Singh, Tulon Borah
July-December 2009, 2(2):90-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57231  PMID:19881157
Primary ovarian pregnancy occurs quite rarely and that too usually in young highly fertile multiparous women using intra uterine device. We present a case where a young primigravida presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed as ectopic pregnancy and was confirmed intra-operatively and histopathologically as primary ovarian pregnancy, managed with partial ovariectomy.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Declining semen quality among south Indian infertile men: A retrospective study
SK Adiga, V Jayaraman, G Kalthur, D Upadhya, P Kumar
January-June 2008, 1(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.38972  PMID:19562058
Background : Male reproductive function has recently attracted increasing attention due to reports on time-related decline in semen quality. Furthermore, regional differences in the semen quality have also been reported. Aim : To investigate the semen quality among large cohort of infertile individuals at a regional level, in terms of the sperm concentration, total sperm motility, sperm morphology and incidence of azoospermia over a period of 13 years. Setting : University infertility clinic at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal which is a tertiary healthcare centre serving the general population. Design : Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: This includes a total of 7770 subjects who presented for semen analysis from 1993 to 2005. The data regarding ejaculate volume, sperm density, motility, morphology and the incidence of azoospermia were collected. Statistical Analysis Used : One way analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis and Chi square analysis. Results : The average sperm density among infertile men during 2004-2005 was 26.61 0.71 millions/mL which was significantly lower than the average sperm density observed in 1993-1994 (38.18 1.46 millions/mL). Similar trend was also observed for sperm motility (47.14% motile sperms vs. 61.16%) and normal sperm morphology (19.75% vs. 40.51%). Interestingly, the incidence of severe oligospermia (mean sperm density <10 millions/mL) observed in 2002-2005 and 1993-1997 demonstrated a significant inverse relationship ( P < 0.001). Conclusion : Our study provides the first evidence that the quality of human semen evaluated for infertility is deteriorating in the southern part of the India over the years, probably due to environmental, nutritional, life style or socioeconomic causes.
  9 7,173 548
Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity
Emmanuel O Salawu, Olusola A Adeeyo, Olutunde P Falokun, Uthman A Yusuf, Abiodun Oyerinde, Anthony A Adeleke
January-June 2009, 2(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51346  PMID:19562072
Background: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. Aim: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum : Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Materials and Methods: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: A Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyse the results obtained. Results: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life-death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. Conclusion: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress.
  9 4,464 369
Blastocyst stage transfer vs cleavage stage embryo transfer
Ann M Mangalraj, K Muthukumar, TK Aleyamma, Mohan S Kamath, Korula George
January-June 2009, 2(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51339  PMID:19562070
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage embryo in a similar cohort of women. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: University teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Women aged 35 or less undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection between January 2005 and December 2006 were included in the study. When four or more grade 1 embryos were observed on day 3, extended culture till day 5 was undertaken. This policy was compared with a cohort of women who had at least three grade 1 embryos on day 3 and who had undergone a cleavage stage embryo transfer during the time period of January 2002-December 2004. Primary outcome evaluated was implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: Group 1 consisted of 50 women who underwent extended culture and blastocyst transfer. Group 2 comprised of 85 women who had cleavage transfer. The implantation rate for embryos transferred in group 1 was significantly higher than that for embryos transferred on day 3 (40.16% vs 11.43%). The clinical pregnancy rate was also significantly better with blastocyst transfer as compared with cleavage stage transfer (62% vs 29.76%). Significantly fewer embryos were required for transfer at the blastocyst stage compared with day 3 transfer (2.54 vs 3.45). Conclusion: In selected cases, blastocyst transfer with fewer embryos can be performed with high implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. This policy could lead to a reduction in the incidence of higher-order pregnancies.
  9 6,550 386
* Source: CrossRef
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