Journal of Human Reproductive Science
Home Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives
   Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size    Users online: 665


 
   Table of Contents     
REVIEW ARTICLE  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-17
 

Revisiting ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome: Towards OHSS free clinic


1 Department of Reproductive Medicine, Nova IVI Fertility, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of IVI, IVI Madrid, Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain

Date of Submission09-Jan-2015
Date of Decision30-Dec-2014
Date of Acceptance17-Jan-2015
Date of Web Publication13-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Manish Banker
Nova IVI Fertility and Pulse Women's Hospital, 108, Swastik Society, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, Gujarat, India

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.153120

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

A rapid development and application of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and ovulation-induction drugs may lead to ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS). Young age, low body mass index (BMI), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), previous OHSS, high follicle count, and elevated serum estradiol (E2) are the certain factors that predispose women to OHSS. Many strategies have been used to reduce or avoid OHSS. Use of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) increases ovarian vascular permeability and is responsible for activating the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) pathway and thus the entire cascade, leading to symptomatic OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are used as a replacement for hCG for final oocyte maturation in antagonist cycles. Reducing or eliminating the use of hCG and use of GnRH agonist triggered GnRH antagonist cycles and cryopreservation of oocytes or embryos is the most promising approach in making OHSS free clinic a reality.


Keywords: Agonist, antagonist, assisted reproductive technology, GnRH, and hCG


How to cite this article:
Banker M, Garcia-Velasco JA. Revisiting ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome: Towards OHSS free clinic. J Hum Reprod Sci 2015;8:13-7

How to cite this URL:
Banker M, Garcia-Velasco JA. Revisiting ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome: Towards OHSS free clinic. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2018 Sep 24];8:13-7. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2015/8/1/13/153120



   Introduction Top


The presence of multiple luteinized cysts within the ovaries leads to ovarian enlargement and vascular hyper permeability causing as cites. [1] Though some degree of ovarian hyper stimulation occurs in all women who respond to ovulation induction without exogenous drugs; ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) as an iatrogenic complication occurs mainly due to ovarian stimulation by gonadotropins. The triggering factor for OHSS is not the ovarian stimulation or controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), but human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) that is used to induce final oocyte maturation. Exogenous administration of hCG can lead to early OHSS and can also occur in patients who do not become pregnant. Endogenous hCG from the trophoblast can cause late OHSS in patients who become pregnant and is caused by the implanting pregnancy. [2] Clinically, OHSS can be mild or severe. While milder OHSS is relatively common and characterized by weight gain, abdominal discomfort, and enlarged ovaries; severe OHSS is accompanied by severe ascites, pleural effusion, electrolyte imbalance, and hypovolemia with oliguria. Deep venous thrombosis and embolism is the most dreaded complication of severe OHSS. [3]

There are certain factors which predispose women to OHSS, like younger age, low body mass index (BMI), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), history of OHSS, high follicle count, and elevated serum estradiol (E2) at the end of COS. [4],[5] Drugs used for ovarian stimulation play a major role in the occurrence of OHSS. OHSS mostly occurs few days after hCG administration when follicular growth is medically induced by using either clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, eventually in conjunction with agonists or antagonists of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). [5],[6]

Many strategies have been used to reduce or avoid OHSS including use of GnRH agonists (GnRha), coasting, lowering or completely withholding hCG, elective cryopreservation of embryos, etc., Though the patients requiring hospitalization due to OHSS is < 2%, [7] but OHSS may be a serious threat to the patient's life. Further, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has doubled in the last decade and as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 176,247 ART cycles were performed at 456 reporting clinics in the United States during 2012. [8] This rapid expansion in use of ART, Human Fertilization and Embryology Act not allowing linking of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and maternal deaths, and nondisclosure by women to maternity services regarding their ART status leads us to believe that the incidence may be underestimated. [9] However, OHSS is avoidable and the concept of "OHSS free clinic" can soon be a reality. In this article, we aim to look at different aspects of OHSS and role of GnRHa in prevention of OHSS.


   Materials and methods Top


A review of the literature was conducted till October 2014 for English language literature on OHSS through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library. Articles were selected if the target population consisted of women undergoing ovarian stimulation and evaluated OHSS as an outcome.

Classification of OHSS

Rabau et al., in 1967 first classified OHSS on the basis of clinical and laboratory parameters. [10] In 1978, Schenker and Weinstein, classified OHSS into three main clinical categories and six grades based on clinical severity and laboratory parameters. [11] A new and still popular classification was done in 1989 by Golan et al., wherein OHSS was classified into three categories (mild, moderate, and severe) and five grades (Grade 1-5). [12] In 1992, severe form was further categorized in to two subgroups by Navot et al. [4] In Golans classification of OHSS, categorization is done on the basis of severity and symptoms as mild (ovary size 5-10 cm), moderate (ovary size >10 cm), and severe (ovary size >12 cm) OHSS. The grading is done based on the symptoms as abdominal tension and discomfort (Grade 1), coupled with nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea (Grade 2). Moderate OHSS has single grade (Grade 3); where ultrasound reveals as cites and/or pleural effusion and dyspnea. Severe OHSS has two grades: Grade 4 (clinical evidence of as cites and/or pleural effusion and dyspnea) and Grade 5 (also has hemoconcentration increased blood viscosity, hypovolemia, decreased renal perfusion, and oliguria). However, as all the women undergoing IVF have enlarged ovaries and varying levels of fluid in the cavity; it is clinically difficult to classify them in grades. There is a need for a clinically relevant classification, according to the new paradigm.

Pathophysiology of OHSS

Though OHSS has been researched for quite long time, its pathogenesis still remains ambiguous. OHSS occurs due to multiple cyst formation in the ovaries after ovulation induction. The massive extravasation of fluids and proteins into the extracellular compartment under hCG stimulation leads to effusion and edema, and compensatory depletion of intravascular volume leading to hemoconcentration and thromboembolic phenomena. [11] This in turn causes reduces renal perfusion, decreases central venous pressure, and hypotension. The accompanying vasodilation leads to an increased cardiac output. [13],[14],[15] The pathology of OHSS seems multifactorial with a number of factors that are thought to trigger the cascade of events leading to OHSS. Numerous factors like estrogens, prostaglandins, rennin angiotensinogen system (RAS), interleukins, and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have been implicated as causative agents of OHSS. [16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21]

Human chorionic gonadotropin and OHSS

hCG:
hCG is the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation in IVF. For decades, hCG is being used as a surrogate for the natural midcycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Both hCG and LH are endogenous ligands for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) which promotes follicular maturation, luteinization, and ovulation. [22] The hCG molecule has a high biological activity, which is about six to seven times higher than the endogenous LH that is replaced. Both LH and hCG bind to and activate the same receptors, but the half-life of LH is 60 min and that of hCG exceeds 24 h. hCG is thought to have a greater affinity to LHR as compared to LH, and thus exerts a more prolonged luteotropic action. [23]

The pharmacological use of hCG is reported to increase ovarian vascular permeability. It is responsible for activating the VEGF pathway and thus the entire cascade, leading to symptomatic OHSS. Cases of spontaneous OHSS have been known to occur and are reviewed in literature. [24],[25] hCG has FSH-like effect that causes some ovarian stimulation. In a study in rat model for ovarian stimulation, hCG-ant dramatically reduced vascular permeability and VEGF expression that leads to OHSS. [26] The role of genetics and genetic mechanisms in OHSS is also being reviewed based on this. O'Brien and group in a study of 172 patients undergoing IVF sequenced LH/chorionic gonadotropin (LHCGR) gene encompassing the insLQ polymorphism. They found that rs4073366 C variant carrier status was associated with OHSS risk. [27]

Endogenous hCG

Along with the exogenous hCG that is administered in cases of ovarian stimulation, the role of endogenous hCG is also being researched. Two forms of OHSS have been defined, early onset, within 9 days of hCG administration; and late onset, caused due to hCG secretion by trophoblastic tissue. [28] OHSS due to endogenous hCG is usually of the late onset variety, where follicular enlargement occurs later through stimulation of FSHR by the hCG secreted by the trophoblast. Mutations in the FSHR, especially activating mutations that 'switch on' the receptor and make it sensitive to stimulation can be a causative agent for OHSS. FSHR gene polymorphisms, especially at codon 307 and 680 may influence FSHR protein responsiveness to exogenous FSH, and also lead to superovulation, thereby causing OHSS. [29],[30] Daelemans et al., however, suggested that the genotype in position 680 of the FSHR cannot predict the development of OHSS, but could be a predictor of severity of symptoms among OHSS patients. [31]

GnRHa/antagonist: Reducing/eliminating hCG

GnRHa are most commonly used for IVF cycles worldwide. GnRHa leads to pituitary desensitization with subsequent gonadotropin suppression leading to a reduction in bioactive levels of LH in the serum. [32] GnRHa are also used as a replacement for hCG, for final oocyte maturation in antagonist cycles. Antagonist occupies GnRH receptors without causing downregulation. The agonist displaces the antagonist from its receptor, activating the receptor, which causes a flare up effect, inducing gonadotropin release. This agonist induced LH surge stimulates ovulation and oocyte maturation. The shorter duration of the endogenous LH surge induced by GnRHa triggering as compared with the continuous LH/hCG receptor stimulation for an estimate of 7-9 days with hCG, along with a negative impact produced by the supraphysiologic steroid levels on LH secretion by the pituitary are the most likely causes behind the reduced risk of OHSS when agonist trigger is used. In a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials by Youssef and associates, the authors concluded the risk of mild, moderate, or severe OHSS with the use of a GnRHain an antagonist-assisted reproductive technology was between 0 and 2% as compared with a 5% risk with the use of hCG. [33]

In a recent study comparing agonist triggers vs hCG in antagonist cycle, the incidence of mild-to-moderate OHSS was 16.2% with GnRHa trigger and 31.0% with hCG trigger. There was no case of severe OHSS in women with GnRHa trigger. Further, GnRHa resulted in 11.4% higher (statistically nonsignificant) live birth and ongoing pregnancy rate (odds ratio (OR) 1.73, confidence interval (CI) 0.64-4.69), with a similar difference for double-embryo transfers (OR 1.62, CI 0.44-6.38) and less need for freezing all embryos (9.7 versus 27.6%; P = 0.04). [34] In studies that have compared donors receiving agonist triggers vs hCG, there have been no differences in the number of oocytes retrieved, or the fertilization or implantation rates of the recipients. No OHSS was seen in these donors in any of these studies.

Use of GnRHa plays an important role in both primary and secondary prevention of OHSS. Primary prevention includes rigorous screening of patients who are undergoing IVF stimulation to identify factors that puts a patient at high risk of OHSS. These include young patients, those with PCOS, those with a high AFC, and those having a history of OHSS in a previous cycle. The antagonist protocol, because of its shorter duration and the fact that it does not cause complete pituitary suppression, is considered a safer alternative than its precursor, the long protocol, in terms of preventing OHSS. Thus, the at-risk group can be identified and started on this protocol. Softer stimulation protocols can be employed and regular E2monitoring can be followed.

Inducing final oocyte maturation with GnRHa has led to a significant reduction in the moderate and severe form of OHSS. In a randomized clinical trial of 257 oocyte donors comparing hCG to GnRHa in GnRH antagonist cycle, the fertilization rates were similar in both the groups; no case of OHSS was seen in GnRHa group, but nine cases of mild and one case of severe OHSS occurred in hCG group. [35] A recent study among 40 women with PCOS and 74 hyperresponders without PCOS also supported the routine use GnRHa trigger to prevent OHSS in women with PCOS. [36]

A meta-analysis published in 2006, as well as a Cochrane review in 2011 confirmed that OHSS can be completely avoided using an agonist trigger. [37],[38]

However, in patients who underwent embryo transfer after agonist trigger, the clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower and the miscarriage rates were higher. This was investigated and found to be due to an inadequately developed corpora lutea, insufficient stimulation of the ensuing corpora lutea, or inadequate luteal support with E2 and progesterone or a combination of all these factors. [39],[40],[41] The Cochrane review also confirmed this. They also concluded that this can be easily managed by a low dose hCG and adequate progesterone support. [37],[38]

A modified luteal support regime that is practiced involves the use of E2 valerate and micronized progesterone, along with a lower dose of recombinant hCG. [42],[43] However, due to the use of hCG, a small risk of OHSS remains.

With the advent of vitrification, the small risk of administering low-dose hCG as luteal support can also be eliminated completely. [44] A "freeze-all" approach in high stimulation cycles allows the ovaries to return to normal before an embryo transfer is carried out, preventing any chances of late onset OHSS caused by endogenous hCG. [45],[46] GnRHa are shown to cause abolition of the spontaneous luteinization process that occurs after the LH peak; thus, the negative feedback preventing further follicular growth is lost leading to hyperstimulation. Thus, the use of GnRH antagonists ("antagonist protocol") is an alternative to GnRH agonists used in long protocol, especially in terms of OHSS prevention.

Dr. Paul Devroey has described a segmentation concept in management of OHSS, leading to an OHSS free clinic. It consists of optimization of the ovarian stimulation, including GnRHa triggering in a GnRH antagonist cycle (segment A). Segment B then consists of optimum cryopreservation methods for oocyte or embryo vitrification. Segment C includes embryo replacement in a receptive, nonstimulated endometrium in a natural cycle or with artificial endometrial preparation. [47] However, combining GnRHa trigger with freezing all embryos in GnRH antagonist cycles has led to anecdotal cases of severe OHSS. [48]


   Conclusion Top


Prevention of OHSS becomes even more important with a rapid increase in the number of ART cycles over the years. Though predicting the occurrence of OHSS, especially late OHSS is difficult; strategies can be implied to minimize its incidence. Feasible protocols using GnRH antagonists and agonists and cryopreservation of embryos might be considered. However, it is essential for clinicians to understand that in spite of the so-called fail safe approaches provided by vitrification and subsequent transfer; there is always a small chance of OHSS. Gurbuz et al., reported three cases of severe OHSS after GnRHa triggering and segmentation of the cycles, without any endogenous presence or exogenous administration of hCG. [49] We also reported two cases in 2014 where severe OHSS requiring hospitalization was seen and both underwent vitrification of all embryos with a subsequent transfer. Future studies designed targeting freeze all approach and segmentation of the cycle or a fresh embryo transfer with a modified luteal phase support after GnRHa triggering would further help to clarify their role.


   Acknowledgement Top


The author acknowledges Knowledge Isotopes Pvt. Ltd. (http://www.knowledgeisotopes.com) for writing support.

 
   References Top

1.
Delvigne A, Rozenberg S. Epidemiology and prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): A review. Hum Reprod Update 2002;8:559-77.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Lyons CA, Wheeler CA, Frishman GN, Hackett RJ, Seifer DB, Haning RV Jr. Early and late presentation of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: Two distinct entities with different risk factors. Hum Reprod 1994;9:792-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bulun SE, EY. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In H.K. Kronenberg, et al. editors. Williams textbook of endocrinology. 11 th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Navot D, Bergh PA, Laufer N. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in novel reproductive technologies: Prevention and treatment. Fertil Steril 1992;58:249-61.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Delvigne A, Demoulin A, Smitz J, Donnez J, Koninckx P, Dhont M, et al. The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in in-vitro fertilization: A Belgian multicentric study. I. Clinical and biological features. Hum Reprod 1993;8:1353-60.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Fiedler K, Ezcurra D. Predicting and preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): The need for individualized not standardized treatment. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2012;10:32.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Papanikolaou EG, Tournaye H, Verpoest W, Camus M, Vernaeve V, Van Steirteghem A, et al. Early and late ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: Early pregnancy outcome and profile. Hum Reprod 2005;20:636-41.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Cobas e 411 analyzer [homepage on the Internet]. Available at: http://www.roche-diagnostics.hu/fmfiles/re7193001/Hungary/roche.hu/Diagnostic/Termekek/CobasE411/cobas_e_411_EN.pdf [Last accessed on 2015 Jan 01].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Bewley S, Foo L, Braude P. Adverse outcomes from IVF. BMJ 2011;342:d436.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Rabau E, David A, Serr DM, Mashiach S, Lunenfeld B. Human menopausal gonadotropins for anovulation and sterility. Results of 7 years of treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1967;98:92-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Schenker JG, Weinstein D. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A current survey. Fertil Steril 1978;30:255-68.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Golan A, Ron-el R, Herman A, Soffer Y, Weinraub Z, Caspi E. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: An update review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1989;44:430-40.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Jewelewicz R, Vande Wiele RL. Acute hydrothorax as the only symptom of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975;121:1121.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Goldchmit R, Elchalal U, Zalel Y, Barash A, Borenstein R, Insler V. Hypovolemic shock as a presenting sign of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). J Assist Reprod Genet 1993;10:480-2.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Grochowski D, Sola E, Kulikowski M, Kuczynski W, Wolczynski S, Szamatowicz M. Successful outcome of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) with 27 liters of ascitic fluid removed by paracentesis. J Assist Reprod Genet 1995;12:394-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Haning RV Jr, Austin CW, Carlson IH, Kuzma DL, Shapiro SS, Zweibel WJ. Plasma estradiol is superior to ultrasound and urinary estriol glucuronide as a predictor of ovarian hyperstimulation during induction of ovulation with menotropins. Fertil Steril 1983;40:31-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Katz Z, Lancet M, Borenstein R, Chemke J. Absence of teratogenicity of indomethacin in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Int J Fertil 1984;29:186-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Schenker JG, Polishuk WZ. The role of prostaglandins in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1976;6:47-52.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Aboulghar MA, Mansour RT, Serour GI, El Helw BA, Shaarawy M. Elevated levels of interleukin-2, soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha, interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999;87:81-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Ferrero H, Garcia-Pascual CM, Gaytan M, Morales C, Simon C, Gaytan F, et al. Dopamine receptor 2 activation inhibits ovarian vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in an ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) animal model: Implications for treatment of OHSS with dopamine receptor 2 agonists. Fertil Steril 2014.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Navot D, Margalioth EJ, Laufer N, Birkenfeld A, Relou A, Rosler A, et al. Direct correlation between plasma renin activity and severity of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertil Steril 1987;48:57-61.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Ascoli M, Fanelli F, Segaloff DL. The lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor, a 2002 perspective. Endocr Rev 2002;23:141-74.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Yen SS, Llerena O, Little B, Pearson OH. Disappearance rates of endogenous luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1968;28:1763-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Cerrillo M, Pacheco A, Rodriguez S, Gomez R, Delgado F, Pellicer A, et al. Effect of GnRH agonist and hCG treatment on VEGF, angiopoietin-2, and VE-cadherin: Trying to explain the link to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertil Steril 2011;95:2517-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
van de Lagemaat R, Raafs BC, van Koppen C, Timmers CM, Mulders SM, Hanssen RG. Prevention of the onset of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in the rat after ovulation induction with a low molecular weight agonist of the LH receptor compared with hCG and rec-LH. Endocrinology 2011;152:4350-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Vardhana PA, Julius MA, Pollak SV, Lustbader EG, Trousdale RK, Lustbader JW. A unique human chorionic gonadotropin antagonist suppresses ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in rats. Endocrinology 2009;150:3807-14.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
O'Brien TJ, Kalmin MM, Harralson AF, Clark AM, Gindoff I, Simmens SJ, et al. Association between the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) rs4073366 polymorphism and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013;11:71.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Nastri CO, Ferriani RA, Rocha IA, Martins WP. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: pathophysiology and prevention. J Assist Reprod Genet 2010;27:121-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Binder H, Dittrich R, Hager I, Muller A, Oeser S, Beckmann MW, et al. Association of FSH receptor and CYP19A1 gene variations with sterility and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Reproduction 2008;135:107-16.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Al-Hendy A, Moshynska O, Saxena A, Feyles V. Association between mutations of the follicle-stimulating-hormone receptor and repeated twinning. Lancet 2000;356:914.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Daelemans C, Smits G, de Maertelaer V, Costagliola S, Englert Y, Vassart G, et al. Prediction of severity of symptoms in iatrogenic ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome by follicle-stimulating hormone receptor Ser680Asn polymorphism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:6310-5.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Regan L, Owen EJ, Jacobs HS. Hypersecretion of luteinising hormone, infertility, and miscarriage. Lancet 1990;336:1141-4.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Youssef MA, Van der Veen F, Al-Inany HG, Mochtar MH, Griesinger G, Nagi Mohesen M, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus HCG for oocyte triggering in antagonist-assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;10:CD008046.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Datta AK, Eapen A, Birch H, Kurinchi-Selvan A, Lockwood G. Retrospective comparison of GnRH agonist trigger with HCG trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles in anticipated high-responders. Reprod Biomed Online 2014;29:552-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Galindo A, Bodri D, Guillen JJ, Colodron M, Vernaeve V, Coll O. Triggering with HCG or GnRH agonist in GnRH antagonist treated oocyte donation cycles: A randomised clinical trial. Gynecol Endocrinol 2009;25:60-6.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
O'Neill KE, Senapati S, Dokras A. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger during in vitro fertilization is associated with similar endocrine profiles and oocyte measures in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2014.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Al-Inany HG, Abou-Setta AM, Aboulghar M. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted conception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Kolibianakis EM, Collins J, Tarlatzis BC, Devroey P, Diedrich K, Griesinger G. Among patients treated for IVF with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues, is the probability of live birth dependent on the type of analogue used? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2006;12:651-71.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Kolibianakis EM, Schultze-Mosgau A, Schroer A, van Steirteghem A, Devroey P, Diedrich K, et al. A lower ongoing pregnancy rate can be expected when GnRH agonist is used for triggering final oocyte maturation instead of HCG in patients undergoing IVF with GnRH antagonists. Hum Reprod 2005;20:2887-92.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Pirard C, Donnez J, Loumaye E. GnRH agonist as luteal phase support in assisted reproduction technique cycles: Results of a pilot study. Hum Reprod 2006;21:1894-900.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Humaidan P, Bredkjaer HE, Bungum L, Bungum M, Grondahl ML, Westergaard L, et al. GnRH agonist (buserelin) or hCG for ovulation induction in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles: A prospective randomized study. Hum Reprod 2005;20:1213-20.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Erdem A, Erdem M, Atmaca S, Guler I. Impact of luteal phase support on pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination cycles: A prospective randomized study. Fertil Steril 2009;91:2508-13.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Maher MA. Luteal phase support may improve pregnancy outcomes during intrauterine insemination cycles. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;157:57-62.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Humaidan P, Alsbjerg B. GnRHa trigger for final oocyte maturation: Is HCG trigger history? Reprod Biomed Online 2014;29:274-80.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Griesinger G, Schultz L, Bauer T, Broessner A, Frambach T, Kissler S. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering of final oocyte maturation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in combination with a "freeze-all" strategy: A prospective multicentric study. Fertil Steril 2011;95:2029-33.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Roque M. Freeze-all policy: Is it time for that? J Assist Reprod Genet 2014.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Devroey P, Polyzos NP, Blockeel C. An OHSS-Free Clinic by segmentation of IVF treatment. Hum Reprod 2011;26:2593-7.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Gurbuz AS, Gode F, Ozcimen N, Isik AZ. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist trigger and freeze-all strategy does not prevent severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A report of three cases. Reprod Biomed Online 2014.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Gurbuz AS, Gode F, Ozcimen N, Isik AZ. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist trigger and freeze-all strategy does not prevent severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A report of three cases. Reprod Biomed Online 2014;29:541-4.  Back to cited text no. 49
    




 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
             

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (481 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and me...
   Conclusion
   Acknowledgement
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3118    
    Printed63    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded195    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal