Journal of Human Reproductive Science
Home Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives
   Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size    Users online: 748


 
CASE REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-38
 

Heterotopic pregnancy in natural conception


No. 6, Sreenivasa Nilaya, 3rd cross, Bima Jyothi, LIC Colony, Basaveswar Nagar, Bangalore, India

Date of Submission13-Nov-2007
Date of Decision22-Jan-2008
Date of Acceptance24-Jan-2008
Date of Web Publication24-Mar-2008

Correspondence Address:
M J Govindarajan
No. 6, Sreenivasa Nilaya, 3rd cross, Bima Jyothi, LIC Colony, Basaveswar Nagar, Bangalore
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.39595

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Heterotopic gestation, although common with assisted reproductive techniques, is very rare in natural conception. A high index of suspicion can help in timely diagnosis and appropriate intervention. We report a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 22-year-old woman presented with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 10 weeks of amenorrhea, diagnosed on ultrasound examination.


Keywords: Adnexal mass, assisted conception, heterotopic


How to cite this article:
Govindarajan M J, Rajan R. Heterotopic pregnancy in natural conception. J Hum Reprod Sci 2008;1:37-8

How to cite this URL:
Govindarajan M J, Rajan R. Heterotopic pregnancy in natural conception. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2008 [cited 2019 Nov 15];1:37-8. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2008/1/1/37/39595


Heterotopic pregnancy is defined as the coexistence of intrauterine and extrauterine gestation. The incidence of heterotopic pregnancy is very low. The frequency was originally estimated on theoretical basis to be 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. We present a rare case of heterotopic pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation and ruptured left adnexal gestation in a natural conception.


   Case Report Top


A 22-year-old woman with 10 weeks of amenorrhea presented for emergency ultrasound scan of pelvis with clinical features of shock. Urine pregnancy test was positive. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed moderate amount of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity with a live intrauterine gestation of about 10 weeks. A complex left adnexal mass was also noted. The transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the findings [Figure - 1]. The Doppler study of left adnexal mass showed low resistance flow [Figure - 2]. Provisional diagnosis of a heterotopic pregnancy with ruptured left ectopic gestation was suggested in view of clinical history, moderate amount of free intraperitoneal fluid, and an intrauterine gestation. The patient underwent emergency laparoscopy. There was ruptured left-sided tubal pregnancy with hemoperitoneum and laparoscopic tubal surgery was performed; the intrauterine live gestation was allowed to continue. The patient delivered a healthy live baby at term.


   Discussion Top


A heterotopic gestation is difficult to diagnose clinically. Typically, laparotomy is performed because of tubal pregnancy. At the same time, uterus is congested, softened, and enlarged; ultrasound examination can nearly always show gestational products in uterus.

The incidence was originally estimated on theoretical basis to be 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. However, more recent data indicate that the rate is higher due to assisted reproduction and is approximately 1 in 7000 overall and as high as 1 in 900 with ovulation induction. [1],[2]

The increased incidence of multiple pregnancy with ovulation induction and IVF increases the risk of both ectopic and heterotopic gestation. The hydrostatic forces generated during embryo transfer may also contribute to the increased risk. [1]

There may be an increased risk in patients with previous tubal surgeries. [3]

Heterotopic pregnancy can have various presentations. It should be considered more likely (a) after assisted reproduction techniques, (b) with persistent or rising chorionic gonadotropin levels after dilatation and curettage for an induced/spontaneous abortion, (c) when the uterine fundus is larger than for menstrual dates, (d) when more than one corpus luteum is present in a natural conception, and (e) when vaginal bleeding is absent in the presence of sings and symptoms of ectopic gestation. [4]

A heterotopic gestation can also present as hematometra and lower quadrant pain in early pregnancy. [5]

Most commonly, the location of ectopic gestation in a heterotopic pregnancy is the  Fallopian tube More Details. However, cervical and ovarian heterotopic pregnancies have also been reported. [6],[7]

Majority of the reported heterotopic pregnancies are of singleton intrauterine pregnancies. Triplet and quadruplet heterotopic pregnancies have also been reported, though extremely rare. [8],[9] It can be multiple as well. [4] They can be seen frequently with assisted conceptions.

Intrauterine gestation with hemorrhagic corpus luteum can simulate heterotopic/ectopic gestation both clinically and on ultrasound. [10] Other surgical conditions of acute abdomen can also simulate heterotopic gestation clinically and hence the difficulty in clinical diagnosis. Bicornuate uterus with gestation in both cavities may also simulate a heterotopic pregnancy.

High resolution transvaginal ultrasound with color Doppler will be helpful as the trophoblastic tissue in the adnexa in a case of heterotopic pregnancy shows increased flow with significantly reduced resistance index. [2]

The treatment of a heterotopic pregnancy is laparoscopy/laparotomy for the tubal pregnancy. [4]

The illustrated case did not have any risk factor for the heterotopic gestation and presented with ruptured tubal pregnancy with hemodynamic instability due to hemoperitoneum.

A heterotopic pregnancy, though extremely rare, can still result from a natural conception; it requires a high index of suspicious for early and timely diagnosis; a timely intervention can result in a successful outcome of the intrauterine fetus. [11]

 
   References Top

1.Lyons EA, Levi CS, Sidney M. Dashefsky in diagnostic ultrasound. In : Rumak CM, Wilson SR, Charboneau WK, editors. 2nd ed. Volume 2, Mosby: 1998. p. 999.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Glassner MJ, Aron E, Eskin BA. Ovulation induction with clomiphene and the rise in heterotopic pregnancies: A report of two cases. J Reprod Med 1990;35:175-8.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Gruber I, Lahodny J, Illmensee K, Losch A. Heterotopic pregnancy: Report of three cases. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002;114:229-32.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Multifetal Ectopic Pregnancy, in Chapter 34. Ectopic Pregnancy, text book of -Williams Obstetrics, 21st ed. p. 888-9.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Cheng PJ, Chueh HY, Qiu JT. Heterotopic pregnancy in a natural conception cycle presenting as haematomatra. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:195-8.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Hirose M, Nomura T, Wakuda K, Ishguro T, Yoshida Y. Combined intrauterine and ovary pregnancy: A case report. Asia Ocaena J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;20:25.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Peleg D, Bar-Hava I, Neaman-Leavin M, Ashkena, Ben-Rafaelz IJ. Early diagnosis and successful non surgical treatment of viable combined intrauterine and cervical pregnancy. Fertil Steril 1994;62:405.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Alsunaidi MI. An unexpected spontaneous triplet heterotopic pregnancy. Saudi Med J 2005;26:136-8.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Sherer DM, Scibetta JJ, Sanko SR. Heterotopic quadruplet gestation with laparoscopic resection of ruptured interstitial pregnancy and subsequent successful outcome of triplets. Am J Obslet Gynecol 1995;172:216.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Sohail S. Haemorrhagic corpus luteum mimicking heterotopic pregnancy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005;15:180-1.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Espinosa PM, Alcantar Mendoza MA. Heterotopic pregnancy: Report of a case and review of literature. Ginecol Obstet Mex 1997;65:482-6.  Back to cited text no. 11    


    Figures

  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Surgical and obstetric outcomes of laparoscopic management for women with heterotopic pregnancy
Jeong Min Eom,Joong Sub Choi,Jung Hwa Ko,Jung Hun Lee,Seon Hye Park,Jin Hwa Hong,Chang Young Hur
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy with tubal rupture and pregnancy progressing to term
Reema Kumar,Madhusudan Dey
Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Gestación heterotópica espontánea
R. Albalat-Fernández, J. Cea-García, A. Carrasco-Gallego, A. Jiménez-Caraballo
Clínica e Investigación en Ginecología y Obstetricia. 2012;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
4 A live birth after laparoscopic cornual resection for cornual heterotopic pregnancy after IVF-ET
Se Jin Lee,Jeong Min Eom,A Ra Koh,Sue Yeon Park,Jung Hun Lee,Joong Sub Choi,Chang Young Hur
Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2012; 55(8): 610
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Heterotopic pregnancy
K. Talbot, R. Simpson, N. Price, S. R. Jackson
Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2011; 31(1): 7
[VIEW] | [DOI]
6 Sonographic appearance of heterotopic pregnancy with ruptured ectopic tubal pregnancy
Manphool Singhal, Chirag Kamal Ahuja, Akshay Kumar Saxena, Lakhbir Dhaliwal, Niranjan Khandelwal
Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 2010; 38(9): 509
[VIEW] | [DOI]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
                 

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (119 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
    Case Report
    Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5953    
    Printed326    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded328    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 6    

Recommend this journal